Presentation on theme: "G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5."— Presentation transcript:
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5
GEO-5 Questionnaire Results ~ Europe Contents of the Presentation: Background information on questionnaire and respondents Regional environmental priority issues & challenges Examples of effective and non-beneficial policy instruments Examples of relevant regional policies & processes
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5 Information on the Questionnaire and Respondents (1/4) Survey period: Questionnaires were sent out at the beginning of August 2010, with a return deadline of early September 2010. Questionnaires mailed: <500 Questionnaires returned: 25 Response rate: 5% Polled institutions –Academic/scientific institutions –Civil society groups, including NGOs –GEO Collaborating Centres –Governments –Intergovernmental institutions
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5 Most respondents represent governmental institutions. Information on the Questionnaire and Respondents (2/4)
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5 Over a third of the responding institutions had a global or European focus. Information on the Questionnaire and Respondents (3/4)
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5 Respondents expertise areas Note: ranking is by frequency Information on the Questionnaire and Respondents (4/4)
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5 Environmental Priorities (1/3) Priority areas by frequency and ranking (all responses grouped) Note: results were weighted and normalised to 1.
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5 Priority issues by sub-regions / Europe / global mandate respondents: Environmental Priorities (2/3)
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5 Central Europe Air pollution and quality, biodiversity, climate change Eastern Europe Climate change, environmental governance, chemicals and waste Western Europe Biodiversity, climate change, air pollution and air quality Europe Climate change, biodiversity, air pollution and quality GlobalClimate change, freshwater, forests Most critical priority issues within sub-regions, Europe and globally are: Environmental Priorities (3/3)
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5 Regional Issues/Challenges related to Priority issue areas (1/3) Specific environmental and sustainability issues mentioned by all the respondents comprised a great diversity of regional and sub-regional challenges. Most frequently, climate change-related issues and challenges were provided. Sub-regions focused on different types of challenges, depending on their chosen priority areas. Central European countries concentrated on drivers of regional environmental issues (e.g., domestic road traffic) and processes of environmental change (e.g., loss of biodiversity). For the Eastern European sub-region, respondents tended to focus on the lack of legal and economic instruments available to deal with environmental issues. Respondents who focused on the Western European sub-region highlighted the threat of not dealing with the environmental issues.
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5 Example: Climate Change-related issues and challenges within sub-regions Central Europe –Developing strategies in response to already expected impacts –Continuing mitigation efforts in line with the 2 deg. C target –Dealing with vulnerability of regions in the Mediterranean Basin; e.g., Turkey will be one of the most vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change (source: IPCC Assessment Report 4). Eastern Europe –Dealing with natural hazards and related reduction of human well-being. Western Europe –Reducing emissions in order to deliver on international commitments, and also to implement a series of integrated measures for adaptation to climate change. –Dealing with mitigation efforts and adaptation strategies needed to respond to the expected impacts. –Dealing with increased damage caused by natural hazards. Regional Issues/Challenges related to Priority issue areas (2/3)
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5 Europe –Developing adaptation strategies in response to already expected impacts; –Continuing mitigation efforts in line with the 2 deg. C target; –Dealing with ageing urban infrastructure; and –Reducing poor governance. Global –Implementing climate mitigation commitments and adapting to climate change; –Dealing with the increasing frequency of natural hazards; –Conducting studies of climate change impacts in mountain regions; –Adapting to climate change in the realm of water management. Example (contd.): Climate Change-related issues and challenges within the European region and across the globe are: Regional Issues/Challenges related to Priority issue areas (3/3)
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5 Existing Policy Instruments that have been effective (1/2) Climate change and Environmental governance were the issue areas listed, for which the most policy instruments exist and are seen as effective. Hardly any examples were given for policy instruments which directly address the issue area of Biodiversity. Only two country-specific instruments were given in the issue area of Forests (provided by experts from Eastern European countries). One respondent referred to the difficulties and constraints associated with carrying out evaluations of policy effectiveness. Rather than providing examples of policy instruments, some respondents offered only broad policy instrument categories (e.g. legal instruments or programming instruments ), which do not refer directly to any specific priority issue area(s).
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5 Example: Effective policy instruments in the area of Environmental Governance Summits and conferences, e.g. World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD) Johannesburg 2002, United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) - Agenda 21, Chapter 13. Specialised networks, e.g. Environmental Compliance and Enforcement Network for Accession (ECENA). Commitments, e.g. the Aalborg Process (including the Aalborg Commitments). Specific strategies, e.g. EC Thematic Strategy on Urban Environment and Guidance on Integrated Environmental Management. Specialised programmes, e.g. 6th Environment Action Programme. Legislation implementation tools, e.g. REC's Handbook for Implementation of EU Environmental Legislation. Existing Policy Instruments that have been effective (2/2)
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5 Existing policy instruments that are not seen as being beneficial/effective The list of counter-productive or non-effective policy instruments is less comprehensive and detailed than that of effective instruments. Respondents tended to cite categories of harmful instruments rather than specific examples. Inadequate financial support or instruments and harmful economic subsidies were commonly recognised as being counter-productive instruments or practices. For the entire European region, a series of interventions were considered as ineffective; e.g., investments sponsored by the World Bank, pay- ment for agriculture products by the EU or the EU 20/20/20 targets on climate change and energy. Country-specific counter-productive policy instruments were given by each represented country, except by a representative of one government who stated "such instruments were not applied".
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5 Recent and/or ongoing Regional/Global Processes and Agreements Respondents most often mentioned processes/agreements that would address multiple priority areas, such as Climate Change, Environ- mental Governance, Energy and Biodiversity. Most countries focused on Environmental Governance issue-related processes and agreements. Processes and agreements related to the areas of Climate Change and Biodiversity were the second most-listed examples. No country-specific processes were identified for the issue areas ofChemicals and Waste, Energy and Forests.
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5 Main Conclusions Certain limitations should be acknowledged: Around 500 questionnaires were sent out by email in August 2010, but by 20 September 2010, only 25 responses were received (5% response rate). The responses received do not necessarily reflect the opinions/views, nor the backgrounds of, the GEO-5 European Regional Consultation participants... There are three key results: Climate change, Biodiversity and Air Pollution and Air Quality were the most important priority issue areas identified for the European region. Respondents identified a wide range of Climate Change-focused, effective instruments, while for instruments which take Biodiversity into account, few instruments were listed. Overall, respondents provided most frequently processes/agreements that would address multiple priority areas such as Climate Change and Environmental Governance. For more information on survey results please refer to the paper.
G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5 www.unep.org/geo G L O B A L E N V I R O N M E N T O U T L O O K - 5
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