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Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Berit H. Johnsen,

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Presentation on theme: "Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Berit H. Johnsen,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo Julia Kristeva about our encounter with the person with disabilities The Norwegian school for all through reforms The turn towards normalisation and revitalising the school for all Between principles and practices

2 Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Invited presentation. Conference on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities. UNICEF Regional Office for CEECIS & UNICEF Country Office in the Russian Federation, September, 2011, Courtyard by Marriott, Moscow Julia Kristeva about our encounter with the person with disabilities Our encounter with the stranger is an encounter with the stranger in ourselves Meeting disability Meeting intellectual challenge We need to become conscious of the stranger in ourselves in order to recognize the other, the stranger, as a unique and vulnerable fellow human being and citizen

3 Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Invited presentation. Conference on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities. UNICEF Regional Office for CEECIS & UNICEF Country Office in the Russian Federation, September, 2011, Courtyard by Marriott, Moscow The Norwegian school in culture-historic context European roots: The ancient Greek – Comenius – Francke The Norwegian non-payment school for all since 1739 Paris the cradle of special needs education 3 special school laws 1881 – 1951 Long tradition with remedial classes in the ordinary school

4 Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Invited presentation. Conference on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities. UNICEF Regional Office for CEECIS & UNICEF Country Office in the Russian Federation, September, 2011, Courtyard by Marriott, Moscow Sector reforms in the Norwegian school: The turn towards normalisation and revitalisation of the school for all From mega-institutions to normalisation From special schools to integration and the school for all

5 Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Invited presentation. Conference on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities. UNICEF Regional Office for CEECIS & UNICEF Country Office in the Russian Federation, September, 2011, Courtyard by Marriott, Moscow Normalization means sharing a normal rhythm of the day, with privacy, activities, and mutual responsibilities; a normal rhythm of the week, with a home to live in, a school or work to go to, and leisure time with a modicum of social interaction; a normal rhythm of the year, with the changing modes and ways of life and of family and community customs as experienced in the different seasons of the year (Nirje, 1980:32-33).

6 Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Invited presentation. Conference on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities. UNICEF Regional Office for CEECIS & UNICEF Country Office in the Russian Federation, September, 2011, Courtyard by Marriott, Moscow The Blom Report (1970) about integration: Belongingness in a social community Participation in the benefits of the community Joint responsibility for tasks and obligations

7 Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Invited presentation. Conference on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities. UNICEF Regional Office for CEECIS & UNICEF Country Office in the Russian Federation, September, 2011, Courtyard by Marriott, Moscow 1975: The turn from segregation towards the school for all and inclusion in Norwegian sector reforms took place when the last special school act was abolished and matters of special education transferred to the ordinary Educational Act All educational acts and national curricula have since covered education for all children with and without special education needs or disabilities

8 Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Invited presentation. Conference on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities. UNICEF Regional Office for CEECIS & UNICEF Country Office in the Russian Federation, September, 2011, Courtyard by Marriott, Moscow Three main pillars in the turn towards inclusion: 1) The School shall have room for everybody and teachers must therefore have an eye for each individual learner. The mode of teaching must not only be adapted to subject and content, but also to age and maturity, the individual learner and the mixed abilities of the entire class (L, 1997:35)

9 Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Invited presentation. Conference on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities. UNICEF Regional Office for CEECIS & UNICEF Country Office in the Russian Federation, September, 2011, Courtyard by Marriott, Moscow Three main pillars in the turn towards inclusion: 2) Teaching shall be adapted to the abilities and aptitudes of individual pupils, apprentices and trainees (Educational Act, 1999/2005, section1-2) 3) Pupils who either do not or are unable to benefit satisfactory from ordinary instruction have the right to special (needs) education (Educational Act, 1999/2005, section 5-1).

10 Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Invited presentation. Conference on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities. UNICEF Regional Office for CEECIS & UNICEF Country Office in the Russian Federation, September, 2011, Courtyard by Marriott, Moscow Current Educational Act (1999/2005) relates to preschool, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education, adult education within the level of primary- and lower secondary education. Current educational legislation has taken fundamental steps towards the realisation of equal rights to meaningful and individually adapted education within the collective of the local regular school; and thus towards inclusion

11 Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Invited presentation. Conference on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities. UNICEF Regional Office for CEECIS & UNICEF Country Office in the Russian Federation, September, 2011, Courtyard by Marriott, Moscow Structure of the Norwegian educational system Kindergarten: one to six years of age Primary and lower secondary school: six to sixteen years Upper secondary school: sixteen to nineteen (twenty one) years College and University education Adult education (at all educational levels) Local educational-psychological service (EPS) - national support system for special needs education – medical, social and psychiatric services

12 Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Invited presentation. Conference on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities. UNICEF Regional Office for CEECIS & UNICEF Country Office in the Russian Federation, September, 2011, Courtyard by Marriott, Moscow Between principles and practice Beyond doubt it is different to be a child with disabilities in the Norwegian education system today than before the turn towards inclusion All major educational changes take time and encounter different barriers It is sinister to observe the huge creativity which many municipalities show to find ways beyond official intentions about inclusive schools

13 Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Invited presentation. Conference on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities. UNICEF Regional Office for CEECIS & UNICEF Country Office in the Russian Federation, September, 2011, Courtyard by Marriott, Moscow Between principles and practice, 2: Kristeva warns against pitfalls in attitudes in current efforts towards disability - reverse interpretation of inclusion implying a new reductionist ideology : –Disability almost disappears when the disabled is given what may be called increased social responsibility –Special needs education does not belong in the inclusive sch ool

14 Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Invited presentation. Conference on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities. UNICEF Regional Office for CEECIS & UNICEF Country Office in the Russian Federation, September, 2011, Courtyard by Marriott, Moscow The role of teachers and special needs educators in the inclusive school The presence of both professions and the quality of their cooperation are fundamental to create including practices: Sharing knowledge - dividing responsibility Two keys to individually meaningful education adapted to the level of mastery and proximal capabilities of each pupil in the polyphone class: individual- and class curricula

15 Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Invited presentation. Conference on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities. UNICEF Regional Office for CEECIS & UNICEF Country Office in the Russian Federation, September, 2011, Courtyard by Marriott, Moscow Official policy is not static, but dynamic and in constant change Therefore advocates for the rights of persons with disabilities and for the inclusive school have to be on guard Advocates for special needs education and inclusion: Professionals, higher education and research, governmental (UNICEF)- and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), specifically of persons with disabilities, politicians and the ordinary citizen

16 Berit H. Johnsen, Department of Special Needs Education, UiO Sector Reforms on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Norway Invited presentation. Conference on Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities. UNICEF Regional Office for CEECIS & UNICEF Country Office in the Russian Federation, September, 2011, Courtyard by Marriott, Moscow Many options as well as obstacles have to be visited in the work towards inclusion. However, in addition to sufficient professional skills, economic and physical frames, legislation and structure, if all these components were optimal, the school needs, in Kristevas spirit, an approving humanistic accept of all pupils, with or without disabilities, as our equal partners and fellow citizens.


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