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Towards inclusion in Norway Some historical lines The legislation system today.

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Presentation on theme: "Towards inclusion in Norway Some historical lines The legislation system today."— Presentation transcript:

1 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no1 Towards inclusion in Norway Some historical lines The legislation system today

2 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no2 Special (Needs) Education Special education is the concrete education that students receive in schools and kindergartens. SE will include: different teaching strategies methodology how the lessons are organized how you structure the room etc.

3 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no3 Special Needs Education Special needs education is a superior concept. SNE will include knowledge about: special education about the research field the understanding of how individual and environmental processes influence on learning of cognitive and social skills, the mental processes etc for persons with disabilities. understanding of the characteristics of different forms of disabilities how the education system is functioning to support persons with disabilities and their families.

4 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no4 The historical lines SNE in Norway is a history of development from children segregated in institutions and special schools, through special units or classes in ordinary schools to inclusion in ordinary settings in ordinary schools and kindergartens.

5 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no5 The phase of foundation ( - 50’s) The first special school for deaf children (1825) + one in 1848 1861 - first school for blind children Reflects the development in Europe 1841 - school for children at social risk (criminals) 1858 – class for children with psycho-social problems 1874 – school for children with developmental disabilities

6 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no6 Some historical lines 1.The phase of foundation ( - 50’s) 2.The phase of consciousness (the 50’s) 3.The phase of explanation and clarification (the 60’s) 4.The phase of legislation (the 70’s) 5.The phase of realisation (the 80’s) 6.The phase of reforms (the 90’s -) (Dalen 1994)

7 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no7 The phase of foundation ( - 50’s) 1.1881 law for “abnormal children”, defined as deaf children, children with visual impairment or mental retardation 2.1896 a low for children named as “neglected children” 3.1889 - law to secure every child the right to education 4.1915 – Separate law for special schools

8 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no8 The phase of consciousness (the 50’s) 1.New law for Special Schools – 1951 2.1955 – the education act includes “auxiliary-classes” within the ordinary schools 3.1959 - service of school psychologists were incorporated in the school laws from 1955

9 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no9 The phase of explanation and clarification (the 60’s) 1.Integration thinking with an individualized and formalized perspective 2.A new education act of 1969 paid attention to how to help the students through 3 perspectives (§8): a)Special education should be given to student because the needed help, not because the couldn’t follow the tuition b)Some principles regarding special education guidelines from the law of special schools was taken into the ordinary education act c)The local administrations (on municipality level) was obliged to establish local pedagogical and psychological services

10 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no10 The phase of legislation (the 70’s) 1.The development up to the 70th is a development marked by a movement away from strongly segregated schools and institutions to a more open school system for students with disabilities. 2.1971 – One law for education 3.The curriculum was marked by a change in concepts: Equality not equal Cooperation and participation Not borderlines but coordination Open pedagogic All education of high quality is Special education

11 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no11 The phase of realisation (the 80’s) 1.The role of special schools were discussed due to a “White paper” from the ministry of education (nr. 501980/81): Education in the local municipality Have the integration process gone to far and to fast? 2.Another White Paper (nr.61, 1984/85) about e special schools and the SNE. Focus was paid to: How to reach high quality in SNE Expert assessment of students with special needs Integration Reorganisation of some of the special schools into resource centres was introduced or the first time

12 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no12 The phase of reforms (the 90’s -) The reformation of The Healthcare System for Persons with Developmental Disabilities White paper nr. 67 (1986/87) Was not started before 91 Important points: No large institutions Be a part of the municipality The right to an Individual Habilitation plan The right to work The right to maximum 5 years of tertiary education The right to housing outside institutions (at least the former large on)

13 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no13 The phase of reforms (the 90’s -) White paper nr. 54 (1989/90) nr. 35 (1990/91) and also nr. 61 (from 1984/85) about special schools and/or resource centres: –Reorganisation of the special schools into 13 competence centres with the country as area of responsibility: 2 for visual impairment 6 for hearing impairment 1 for language And speech difficulties 3 for psycho-social problems 1 for reading and writing difficulties –In addition 7 regional centres for complex learning difficulties –A special program for the northern Norway

14 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no14 The phase of reforms (the 90’s -) Today – Statped (the system of resource centres): 3 for visual impairment 7 for hearing impairment 4 for deafblindness (on regional level) and 3 with special tasks (on national level) 5 for language- speech, reading and writing difficulties 8 for complex learning difficulties and social and emotional problems 2 only for social and emotional problems 1 for profound and multiple learning disabilities 1 for minority language and learning difficulties 1 for early childhood intervention (0-5 years) 1 for information technology for people with disabilities 1 for acquired brain damage 1 for disabled Sami persons 1 for ADHD, Tourette syndrome and Narcolepsy 6 schools attached to social and medical institutions

15 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no15 The phase of reforms (the 90’s -) Today: 1.Alternative schools 2.Individual Education Plans 3.The pedagogical and psychological service system (1. line) in cooperation with regional and national services 4.Adapted education

16 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no16 Adapted education Adapted Education Special needs Education For every child For students that needs more support than the ordinary system can offer

17 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no17

18 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no18 Legislation All children and young persons have the right to 13 years of schooling All children must have 10 years of compulsory school from the age of six years Teaching shall be adapted to the abilities and aptitudes of individual pupils, apprentices and trainees Pupils who do not benefit satisfactorily from regular teaching have the right to special education

19 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no19 Legislation The Act concerns primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education in public schools The Private Education Act has similar regulations

20 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no20 Legislation Responsibility of the authorities: The municipality shall provide primary and lower secondary education and special educational assistance The county authority shall provide upper secondary education

21 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no21 Legislation ”Working Environment Act” for pupils New chapter in the Education Act from 2002 The schools are to be planned, build, organised and run in consideration to the safety, health, well-being and education of the pupils Special consideration shall be shown for pupils with disabilities already in the school

22 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no22 Legislation - primary and lower secondary school Obligation and right for every child

23 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no23 Legislation - primary and lower secondary school Sign language tuition: Pupils who have sign language as their first language Primary and lower secondary school A right to tuition both in the use of sign language and through the medium of sign language Can be provided at a different location than the pupil’s local school Sign language tuition is not special education

24 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no24 Legislation - primary and lower secondary school Braille instruction: Partially sighted and blind pupils Primary and lower secondary school A right to necessary instruction in the use of Braille and necessary technical aid + orientation and mobility instruction According to an expert assessment Braille instruction is not special education

25 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no25 Legislation - primary and lower secondary school Assessment: Primary school: Assessment without grades Lower secondary: Subject grades and grades for behaviour

26 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no26 Legislation - upper secondary education Pupils who have completed primary and lower secondary school Right to three years’ full-time upper secondary education Pupils who have the right to special education, have the right to a maximum of two years’ additional upper secondary education

27 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no27 Legislation - upper secondary education Tuition arrangements: Upper secondary education shall lead to qualification for: higher education vocational qualifications lower level of competence

28 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no28 Legislation - upper secondary education Training in enterprises: Apprentice: a person entered into an apprenticeship contract to take a trade or journeyman’s examination Trainee: a person entered into a traineeship contract to take a less extensive examination

29 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no29 Legislation - upper secondary education Education and training organized especially for adults: Persons above compulsory school age who require primary and lower secondary education have a right to such education The education shall be individually adapted Also the right to special education at the primary and lower secondary level Adults with special need for basic skill training have the right to such training

30 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no30 Legislation - upper secondary education Adults – upper secondary: Persons having completed primary and lower secondary level or the equivalent Adapted to individual needs No right to special education No charge, but the authorities may require payment for teaching materials and equipment

31 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no31 Right to special education sec. 5-1 Pupils who either do not or are unable to benefit satisfactorily from ordinary tuition have the right to special education

32 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no32 Legislation – Special (needs) education Expert assessment: To decide whether the pupil needs special education and what kind of tuition should be provided, the expert assessment shall consider and determine: –The pupil’s benefit from ordinary tuition –Learning difficulties and other special condition –Realistic educational objectives –Whether it is possible to provide help within ordinary educational provisions –What kind of tuition it is appropriate to provide

33 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no33 Legislation – Special (needs) education Administrative procedures: The municipality or county authority takes the decision concerning special education If the decision of the authority differs from the expert assessment, it shall be explained how the tuition fulfils the pupil’s rights pursuant to the law

34 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no34 Legislation – Special (needs) education Individual syllabuses: Pupils receiving special education shall have an individual syllabus The syllabus shall specify –educational objectives –content of the education –how tuition is to be carried out

35 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no35 Legislation – Special (needs) education Educational and psychological counselling service: Each municipality and county shall provide assistance to schools in work on organizational development development of expertise to improve the adoption of tuition for pupils with special needs

36 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no36 Legislation - Day-care for school children The municipality shall provide day-care facilities for school children both before and after school hours for class levels 1-4 Day-care facilities shall be provided for pupils with special needs for class level 1- 7 The facilities are mainly financed by means of parents’ fee

37 steinar.theie@isp.uio.no37 Legislation - Children under compulsory school age Children under compulsory school age with specific needs for special educational assistance, have the right to such assistance This shall include parental guidance If considered needed: kindergarten or pre- school can be defined as such “assistance” and will then be free of cost

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