2 HOW FIRES STARTFire is a chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation or burning offuel. It needs three elements to occur.-Fuel: Fuel cam be any combustible material- solid, liquidor gas. Most solids and liquids become a vapor or gasbefore they will burn.-Oxygen: The air we breathe is about 21 percent oxygen.Fire only needs an atmosphere with at least 16% percentoxygen.-Heat: Heat is the energy necessary to increase thetemperature of the fuel to a point where sufficient vapors aregiven off for ignition to occur.
3 CHEMICAL REACTIONA chain reaction can occur when the three elements of fire arepresent in the proper conditions and proportion. Fire occurswhen this rapid oxidation, or burning takes place.-Take any one of these factors away, and the fire cannotoccur or will be extinguished if it was already burning.
4 TETRAHEDRON THE FIRE TETRAHEDRON The process we know as fire is a chemical reaction which involvesrapid oxidation or burning of a combustible material. In the past,we learned that three elements, fuel, heat, and oxygen were necessaryfor fire to start and continue burning, hence the fire triangle concept.In recent years this concept has been expanded to include a fourthelement, that of the chemical reaction, thus creating the fire tetrahedron.
5 Cont.The following is a brief description of each element and their interaction:Fuel - May be any combustible material. Can be a solid, liquid, or gas. Typically solids and liquids must be heated to the point where they are converted into a vapor or gas before they will burn.Oxygen - There must be at least 16% oxygen present for a fire to burn. This is usually not a problem since the air we breath is about 21% oxygen.
6 Cont.Heat - Heat is the energy needed to increase the fuel’s temperature to the point where sufficient vapors are produced for ignition to occur.Chemical Reaction - The chemical chain reaction know as fire occurs when fuel, oxygen and heat are present in the right conditions and amounts.
7 HOW FIRES ARE CLASSIFIED CLASS A:Ordinary combustibles or fibrous material such asWood, paper, cloth, rubber and some plastics.CLASS B:Flammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline,kerosene, paint, paint thinner and propane.
8 Cont. CLASS C: Energized electrical equipment, such as appliances, Switches, panel boxes and power tools.CLASS D:Certain combustible metals, such as magnesium,Titanium, potassium and sodium. These metals burnat high temperatures and give off sufficient oxygento support combustion. They may react violentlywith water or other chemicals, and must be handledwith care.
9 Residence Life Safety Regulations for Residential Living Candies, Incense, and Combustible MaterialsCandles and incense are a fire hazard and are not permitted in the residence halls or apartments. Combustible materials such as gasoline, paint thinner, and oil lamps are not permitted within the residential facilities. Fire safety codes require strict compliance with this regulation. Propane grills are prohibited.
10 Cont. Fire Alarms, Fire Drills, and Residential Safety Each residence hall has at least two fire drills per semester. These drills will not be announced and you must evacuate the building immediately each time the fire alarm sounds. Disciplinary action will be taken if a student does not evacuate the building.The misuse of fire alarms, fire detection devices, or fire extinguishers constitutes a serious offense. Any resident who misuses such equipment or devices will be subject to prosecution and disciplinary action. Residents are responsible for any damage to the system and they will be held financially accountable. Fire and safety regulations strictly prohibit the use or storage within residential facilities of explosives, fireworks, live Christmas trees, flammable liquids, fire-arms, ammunition, and combustible engines of any kind.
11 WHEN NOT TO FIGHT A FIRE NEVER FIGHT A FIRE: If the fire is spreading beyond the spot where it started.If you can’t fight the fire with your back to an escape exit.If the fire can block your only escape.If you don’t have adequate fire-fighting equipment.In any of these situation,DON’T FIGHT THE FIRE YOURSELF.CALL FOR HELP.
12 HOW TO EXTINGUISH SMALL FIRES CLASS A- Extinguish ordinary combustibles bycooling the material below its ignition temperature andsoaking the fibers to prevent re-ignition.Use pressurized water, foam or multi-purpose (ABCrated) dry chemical extinguisher. DO NOT USEcarbon dioxide or ordinary (BC-rated) dry chemicalextinguisher on Class A fires.
13 Cont. CLASS B: Extinguish flammable liquids, greases by removing the oxygen, preventing the vapors fromreaching the ignition source or inhibiting the chemicalchain reaction.Foam, carbon dioxide, ordinary (BC-rated) drychemical, multi-purpose dry chemical, and halonextinguishers may be used to fight Class B fires.CLASS C – Extinguish energized electricalequipment by using an extinguishing agent that is notcapable of conducting electrical current.Carbon dioxide, ordinary (BC-rated) dry chemical,multi-purpose dry chemical and halon* fireextinguishers may be used to fight Class C fires. DONOT USE WATER EXTINGUISHERS ONENERGIZED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT.
14 Cont. CLASS D: Extinguish combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, potassium and sodium withdry powder extinguishing agents specially designatedfor the material involved.In most cases, they absorb the heat from the material,cooling it below its ignition temperature.NOTE: Multipurpose (ABC-rated) chemical extinguisher leave aresidue that can harm sensitive equipment, such as computers andother electronic equipment. Because of this, carbon dioxide or halonextinguishers are preferred in these instances because they leave verylittle residue.
15 Cont. ABC dry powder residue is mildly corrosive to many metals. For example, reside left over from the use of an ABC dry powderextinguisher in the same room with a piano can seriously corrodepiano wires.
16 HOW TO IDENTIFY THE PROPER FIRE EXTINGUISHER All ratings are showed on the extinguisher faceplate.Some extinguishers are marked with multiple ratings such as AB,BC and ABC. These extinguishers are capable of putting out morethan one class of fire.Class A and B extinguishers carry a numerical rating that indicateshow large a fire an experienced person can safely put out with thatextinguisher.Class C extinguishers have only a letter rating to indicate that theextinguishing agent will not conduct electrical current. Class Cextinguisher must also carry a B rating.
17 HOW TO USE A PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER Class D extinguishers carry only a letter rating indicating theireffectiveness on certain amounts of specific metals.HOW TO USE A PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERREMEMBER THE ACRONYM, “P.A.S.S.”P …….Pull the PinA ……..Aim the extinguisher nozzle at the base of the flame.S ………Squeeze trigger while holding the extinguisher upright.S ………Sweep the extinguisher from side to side, covering thearea of the fire with the extinguishing agent.NOTE: PULL A FIRE ALARM BOX AND ALERT OTHERS BEFORE YOU ATTEMPT TO USE A FIRE EXTINGUISHER.
18 Remember: …THEN LEAVE THE AREA IMMEDIATELY!!!! Should your path of escape be threatened.Should the extinguisher run out of agent.Should the extinguisher prove to be ineffective.Should you no longer be able to safely fight the fire.Close the door on your way out of the area.…THEN LEAVE THE AREA IMMEDIATELY!!!!
19 HOW TO INSPECT YOUR FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Know the locations of the fire extinguishers in your work area.Make sure the class of the extinguisher is safe to use on fires likelyto occur in the immediate area.Check the plastic seal holding the pin in the extinguisher handle. Hasthe extinguisher been tampered with or used before? Report anybroken/missing seals/pins to the Public Safety OfficeWater, some foam, and dry chemical extinguishers have gaugesindicating the pressure inside the extinguisher. The pressureneedle should be in the “green” area (generally lbs.,depending on the type of agent).
20 Cont. CO2 (carbon dioxide) extinguishers are high pressure cylinders with pressures ranging from 1500 lb to 2150 lb. Theseextinguishers DO NOT have gauges and must be weighed byFire Safety Unit staff to determine the amount of contentsremaining.Make sure the pin, nozzle and nameplate are intact.One is encouraged to be aware of the condition of your area’sextinguishers by visual inspection on a frequent basis to ensureyou have a working extinguisher there when you need one.Report any missing, empty or damaged fire extinguishers to thePublic Safety Office ( ) whenever you notice anydiscrepancies.
21 The Appearance of Different types of extinguishers Generally, you can tell with a glance which type an extinguisher ishanging on the wall, or in the cabinet, just by looking at its shape.Check the labels of the extinguishers in your area and note thecolor and shape/size of the extinguisher. This may help if someoneruns in to help you fight a fire with the WRONG extinguisher (i.e.water on an electrical fire) – you can STOP them before they areinjured or make matters worse!ABC-rated multipurpose dry powder extinguishers are the mostcommon on campus, particularly in the corridors fo academicbuildings. They are almost always RED in color and have eithera long narrow hose or no hose(just a short nozzle). Theseextinguishers are very light (5-25lbs) Halon extinguishers lookvirtually identical to ABC multipurpose dry chemical extinguishers
22 Cont.Water extinguisher are generally found in the dormitories and areusually SILVER (crome-metal) in color, have a flat bottom, have along narrow hose, are quite large (2-1/2 gallons).CO2 (carbon dioxide) extinguishers are generally red, havea LARGE “tapered” nozzle (horn), are VERY HEAVY (15-85 lbs). They are high-pressure cylinders.Care should be used NOT TO DROP a co2 cylinder, if itis damaged it can punch a hole through the nearest wall(s)and end up on the other side of campus! (The containersare quite sturdy, but don’t abuse them.) CO2 cylinders donot have a pressure gauge-they must be weighed toDetermine the amount of contents.
23 Where can I find a fire extinguisher on campus In the corridors of academic and office buildings, and inside verylarge rooms.In or immediately outside all laboratories where chemicals arestored and used.In or immediately outside mechanical spaces where motorized orother equipment is present which might reasonably cause a fire.In campus storage buildings, and mounted insidecertain university vehicles.If you can’t find the fire extinguisher in your area, or feel you needa different type/size or extinguisher for you area, contact ThePublic Safety Office
24 RESIDENCE HALL FIRE SURVIVAL PROCEDURE When You Move In:Locate at least two emergency exits from your floor andmake sure they are free of obstructionNote location of fire alarms, extinguishers or any otheremergency equipment available.Note location of landmarks which may aid egress whenvisibility is reduced by smoke.
25 ALWAYS: Refamiliarize yourself with standard fire drill procedures. Become familiar with University fire and general safetyregulations.ALWAYS:Make sure the fire doors in halls and stair wells are closedat all times.Extinguish all cigarettes and matches and empty wastebasketsoften.Close door to your room when you retire. Exit when firealarm sounds!!!!
26 NEVER: Smoke in bed. Burn candles. Allow an open flame (cigarette, candle, torch, etc.)or cooking appliance (coffee pot, hot plate, etc.) nearcommon combustible material, i.e., wood, paper, textiles, orflammable liquid.Ignore fire alarm.
27 If you leave your room in the event of a fire: Remain calm. Act quickly, not rashly. Your objective issurvive. If you can exit safely, do so. If not, you must workquickly to defend yourself against smoke and flame.If you leave your room in the event of a fire:Never open your door without first checking for heat orsmoke. Close doors behind you.Do not allow doors to lock behind you. You may be forcedto return.
28 Cont. If smoke is encountered during egress, do not walk upright …crawl. The air is cooler and less toxic nearer the floor.Never use an elevator.If smoke is present in a stairwell, avoid it. Choose anotherrouteIf your clothes catch fire…stop, drop, and roll to extinguishthe flames.If you are in a room where fire starts, try to extinguish the fireif small. If the fire is too large, leave quickly. Close the doorand/ or call the Fire Department, dail 9,
29 IF YOU ARE TRAPPED IN YOUR ROOM: Seal door/window cracks and ventilation grills with tape(preferably duct tape) or towels and/or clothing (preferablywet) to keep smoke out. If there is smoke in the room, openthe window to let it out. Hang out an article of cloth, largeenough for rescuers to see, out of a corner of the window.Close the window again and seal cracks. Keep window closedto prevent outside smoke from entering.Do not break the window unless the room has been heavilyinvaded by smoke and you must get air to survive. Remember;stay close to the floor for air. Call the Public Safety Office (4911),report the fire location and your situation. Tie a towel orclothing (preferably wet) around your nose and mouth ifnecessary to filter smoke. Do not jump!!