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A Systemic Functional Multimodal Discourse Analysis (SF-MDA) Approach to Science Literacies in Secondary School Chemistry textbooks Liu Yu Multimodal Analysis.

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Presentation on theme: "A Systemic Functional Multimodal Discourse Analysis (SF-MDA) Approach to Science Literacies in Secondary School Chemistry textbooks Liu Yu Multimodal Analysis."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Systemic Functional Multimodal Discourse Analysis (SF-MDA) Approach to Science Literacies in Secondary School Chemistry textbooks Liu Yu Multimodal Analysis Lab National University of Singapore

2 Background: Significance of science education Highly valued in the school curriculum (Ministry of Education, 2007) Governments generous financial investment on science education (Rose, 1997: 3)

3 Scientific Literacy vs. Science Literacy Scientific Literacy: Students individual cognitive development and the ability to understand scientific concepts. Science Literacy: Scientific talking, reading and writing as representations. (Bennett 2003: 148)

4 Literacy challenges posed by multimodal construction of scientific knowledge Language Images Graphs and tables Mathematical symbols Chemical symbols

5 Research questions How to bridge scientific literacy and science literacy and incorporate their insights in chemistry education? Why did modern chemical symbolism emerge complementary to language? What are the special functions of chemical symbolism and their implications for teaching and learning?

6 Outline Revisiting a classic psychological model in chemistry education (Johnstone 1982, 1993) and incorporating its insights into the SF- MDA approach (OHalloran 2007) Investigating semogenesis of modern chemical symbolism and analyzing its functional affordances Discussing teaching and learning implications from Bernsteins (1990) sociology of education

7 Scientific literacy: The psychological approach Macroscopic Level Submicroscopic Level Representational Level Adapted from Johnstone (1993: 703)

8 Different descriptions of the rusting of iron LevelMacroscopicSubmicroscopicRepresentational Description Solid iron nail has a brown flaky coating on it that comes off easily when touched. Iron metal has iron atoms all closely packed together to form the solid nail. Some of the iron atoms next to the surface have reacted with the oxygen molecules forming a bond between an iron atom and an oxygen atom according to the formula Fe 2 O 3. The chemical equation summarizes the reaction showing the number of iron atoms and oxygen atoms involved in the reaction. A ball-and- stick model and a computer simulation can depict the solid iron atoms being attacked by the oxygen molecule. Real or Representation RealReal-but too small to be seen with naked eyes Representation Perception VisibleCant be seen with naked eyes, so mental image is based on descriptions, diagrams, explanations The model is a tool to help understand the real entity. Adapted from Chittleborough (2004: 22)

9 Science literacy: Social semiotic approach Context plane Common senseScientific knowledge Content plane Semantic stratum Ideational meaning Lexico- grammatical stratum Common languageTechnical language Based on Martin (2007: 34)

10 Systemic functional linguistic approach to chemistry verbal texts Meaning Stratum Ideational meaning Semantic stratumMacroscopic meaning Submicroscopic meaning Lexicogrammatical stratum Common language (e.g. a brown flaky coating) Technical language (e.g. ferri oxide)

11 Recent research on Multimodal Discourse Analysis from Systemic Functional perspectives (SF-MDA) Displayed art (OToole 1994) Visual design (Kress and van Leeuwen 1996) Scientific and mathematical visuals (OHalloran 1996, 1999a, 2000, 2005, 2007b ; Baldry and Thibault 2006; Guo 2004; Jones 2007) Mathematical symbolism (OHalloran 1996, 1999a, 2000, 2005) Three-dimensional objects (OToole 1994, 2004; Kress and van Leeuwen 2006) Embodied action (Martinec 1998, 2000) Music (Van Leeuwen 1999)

12 SF-MDA approach to science literacies in secondary school chemistry textbooks Meaning Stratum Ideational meaning Semantic stratum Macroscopic meaningSubmicroscopic meaning Lexicogrammatical stratum Common language Photographs Technical language Micrographs Scientific drawing Tables Graphs Chemical symbolism

13 Semogenesis of modern chemical symbolism Quantification requirements of chemistry Theoretical revolution of chemistry in the late 18 th century Meaning making potentials (language vs. symbolism) Ratio rate between elements (e.g. calcium chloride / CaCl 2 ) Medium in an Ergativity configuration [e.g. Charcoal is burned. / C + O 2 ]

14 Lexicogrammatical strategies: The Reactive process The Reactive process [[C + O 2 ]] CO 2 [[Fe + O 2 ]] Fe 2 O 3 The Reactive/Operative process [[2Fe + 3O 2 ]] 2Fe 2 O 3

15 Lexicogrammatical strategies: Multiple rankshift Clause: 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O Expression: H 2, O 2, H 2 O, 2H 2, 2H 2 O (i.e. word group /phrase) Atom: H, O, 2, +, (i.e. word) [[[[2[[H 2 ]]]] + [[O 2 ]]]] [[2[[H 2 O]]]]

16 Lexicogrammatical strategies: Multiple rankshift RankProcessParticipants Rank 1 (ranking clause)(Relational) 2H 2 +O 2 2H 2 O Rank 2+ (Reactive/Operative) 2H 2 O 2 Rank 3 ( ) Х (Operative) 2 H 2 Rank 3 ( ) Х (Operative) O 2 Rank 3 ( ) Х (Operative) 2 H 2 O Rank 4 ( ) + ( Reactive/Operative) H Rank 4 ( ) + ( Reactive/Operative) O Rank 4 ( ) + ( Reactive/Operative) H O H

17 Lexicogrammatical strategies: Multiple rankshift Step 1: Write the formula H 2 + O 2 H 2 O Step 2: Count the atoms Step 3: Add 2 in front of H 2 O H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O Step 4: Count the atoms again Step 5: Add 2 in front of H 2 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O Adapted from (Onn, Ang and Khoo 2006: 59)

18 Lexicogrammatical strategies: Ellipsis of the Reactive/Operative process at the rank of Expression Symbolic representations of copper oxide Congruent representation: Cu + O (Berzelius 1813, see Brock 1993: 154) Rank-shifted representation: CuO

19 CuO CuO Copper Oxide + The semo-genetic codification of copper oxide

20 Viewed from Bernsteins (1990) classification of pedagogical devices Intra-individual Psychological approach (e.g. Johnstone 1982, 1993) Acquisition Transmission SF-MDA approach (e.g. OHalloran 2007 ) Inter-group

21 Concluding remarks Developing scientific literacy with science literacies Chemical symbolism as powerful meaning potential for semantic expansions rather than a jargon Towards a SF-MDA meta-language for developing literacies with a visible pedagogy

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