Presentation on theme: "Feed minds, change lives"— Presentation transcript:
1Feed minds, change lives SCHOOL FEEDINGFeed minds, change livesThomas Yanga, Regional DirectorWorld Food Programme Regional Bureau for West and Central Africa, Dakar, Senegal
2STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION Overview on education and hungerDefinition of school feeding/overview of WFP’s school feeding programmesRationale for school feeding safety net interventions: outcomes and cost- effectivessHome-Grown School FeedingWFP’s new school feeding policyThe school feeding strategy and the new approachThe WB/WFP partnershipThe way forward
3OVERVIEW: HUNGER66 million primary school age children attend school hungry; 23 million are in Africa alone. 80% of these 66 million is concentrated in 20 countries.The impact of the global hunger and food insecurity emergency was dramatically amplified by the financial crisis.The poor often do not have enough food at home, and most schools in developing countries do not have canteens or cafeterias. On empty stomachs, children have problems concentrating on their lessons.A daily school meal boosts learning by allowing children to focus on their studies and not on their stomachs.
4HUNGERLegend< 4%5-19%20-34%> 35%No data availableSource: FAO State of Food and Agriculture, 2007Hunger: Percentage of population below the minimum level of dietary energy consumption ( )The proportion of the population below the minimum level of dietary energy consumption, referred to as the prevalence of undernourishment, is the percentage of the population that is undernourished or food deprived. Standards derived from an FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation (FAO et al. 2004).
5PRIMARY SCHOOL COMPLETION Legend< 4%5-19%20-34%> 35%No data availableSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2008Primary school completion rate, total ( )75 million school-age children (55% of them girls) do not attend school; 47% of them live in sub-Saharan Africa.Primary completion rate is the total number of students in grade 6 (excluding repeaters) divided by the total number of children of grade age. Data is from latest available year.
6HIGH-ENERGY BISCUITS AND SNACKS SCHOOL FEEDINGSCHOOL FEEDINGProvision of food to school childrenIN-SCHOOL MEALSChildren are fed breakfast, lunch or both in schoolTAKE-HOME RATIONSTransfer of food resources to entire families conditional upon school enrolment and regular attendance of childrenMEALSHIGH-ENERGY BISCUITS AND SNACKS
7SCHOOL FEEDING School feeding: Country programs (2006-08) LegendCategory 1Category 2Category 3No data availableSources:School feeding: Country programs ( )Category 1: Countries where school feeding is available in most schools, sometimes or always with subsidies for some or all children; Category 2: Countries where school feeding is available in most schools some of the time; Category 3: Countries where school feeding is available primarily in the most food insecure regions.
8WFP AND SCHOOL FEEDINGWFP provides feeding to an average 22 million children in school, about half of whom are girls, in some 70 countries, for a total value of almost half a billion.WFP is also assisting 730,000 pre-school children in 13 countries through school feeding programmes.
9WFP SCHOOL FEEDING IN WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA WFP provides feeding to an average of 4 million children in school in 19 countries in West and Central Africa .Cape Verde nationally owned school feeding from 2010Essential minimum package (teachers, classrooms, water, sanitation, books etc)Partnership is key (World bank, Brazil, donors)Multi-sectorial approach demanding Interministerial plan of action
11Platform for wider Socio-economic Benefits SCHOOL FEEDING OUTCOMESNutritionImproved micronutrient and macronutrient intake lead to enhanced nutrition and child health, increased learning and decreased morbidity for studentsEducationSchool feeding can help to get children into school and help to keep them there, through enhancing enrolment and reducing absenteeism.GenderProven positive contribution of school feeding to gender equality. Access to school for OVCs, IDP, HIV affectedValue TransferSchool feeding transfer resources to households, averting negative coping strategies and allowing investments in productive assetsSEE ALSO THE BACKUP SLIDES FOR SOME EVIDENCESchool Feeding Programmes in place around the world today have demonstrated five main outcomes.Safety nets: school feeding can transfer about 11% of household expenditure to households for each child who participates. That is quite high considering that the average cash transfer programme transfers around 15%-20%. This is a new policy focus for WFP and is referred to later in the presentation.Education: SF is an intervention that has proven educational benefits, both on improving school participation and cognitive abilities. It can have a major impact on enrolment, attendance, learning and cognitive development.Nutrition: There are clear nutritional benefits for schoolchildren of providing foods which have been fortified with micronutrients. Programmatic evidence suggests that de-worming through schools is safe, cheap and remarkably cost-effective. School feeding in many cases presents the vehicle or channel for delivery.Equitable access: Evidence shows that school feeding has a particular strong effect on enhancing school participation among girls. Also, in areas with high HIV prevalence, emerging evidence shows that school feeding has the potential of enhancing enrolment, attendance and progression of orphans and other vulnerable children.Local development: local purchase for school feeding becomes a win-win situation for the children and for local farmers and local economies. Community self-reliance can be strengthened through a programme which is locally-driven and planned. This is a new strategic focus for WFP and is referred to later in the presentation.Platform for wider Socio-economic BenefitsLinkages to health and nutrition/ essential package interventions. Spin offs to community development, local production, in particular when food is being sourced from poor, smallholder farmers.
12WHAT IS HOME-GROWN SCHOOL FEEDING? “Home-Grown School Feeding (HGSF) is a school feeding programme that provides food produced and purchased within a country”.Linking school feeding to local agricultural productionIncreasing small-scale farmers’ (SSF) access to the school feeding marketSPECIFIC OBJECTIVESEncouraging improved production practices among small-scale farmersIncreasing direct purchase from smallholders
13THE THREE FOCUS AREAS STRATEGIC PROCUREMENT AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Aim to increase access for small-scale farmers through activities in three focus areas:STRATEGIC PROCUREMENTAGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENTINSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTRemoving the barriers that small-scale farmers might face in accessing the school feeding market, such as:Lack of informationInsufficient capacity to meet traditional tendering requirementsLack of capacity to supply, store and transport commoditiesVulnerability to post-harvest lossesTailoring assistance packages (e.g. improved seeds, fertilizers and other agricultural inputs at subsidized prices) to the least advantaged small-scale farmers to help them:Increase productivityProduce better-quality cropsManage natural resourcesMitigate risks in a sustainable wayIn line with CAADP pillar III and NEPAD plansContextual support that exists and may need to be developed for the appropriate design and implementation of HGSF. This includes policies, rules and strategies related to:School feedingProcurement and increased agricultural productionCapacity of the country to manage resources to implement a cost-efficient programmeStrategic procurement: the purchasing process that supplies food to the school feeding programme in such a way that small-scale farmers benefit by ensuring that the procurement process is “strategic”. This means removing the barriers that small-scale farmers face in accessing the school feeding market, such as lack of information, insufficient capacity to meet traditional tendering requirements, lack of capacity to supply, store and transport commodities and vulnerability to post-harvest losses.Agricultural development: activities intended to help small-scale farmers increase productivity, produce better-quality crops, manage natural resources and mitigate risks in a sustainable way. This entails the provision of assistance packages (e.g. improved seeds, fertilizer and other agricultural inputs at subsidized prices) to the least advantaged small-scale farmers so they can produce food in greater quantities and be able to supply the school feeding programme.Institutional development: support for appropriate design and implementation of the HGSF programme. This includes the policies, standards, rules and strategies related to school feeding, procurement and increased agricultural production and to national capacity building to fund, manage and implement a cost-efficient programme and document results.
14WFP’s new policy on SF is based on recent analytical work WFP’s NEW POLICY ON SCHOOL FEEDINGWFP’s new policy on SF is based on recent analytical workRethinking School Feeding: social safety nets, child development, and the education sectorA joint WB/WFP publication highlighting the importance of mainstreaming school feeding into national policies and plans. It provides guidance on how to develop and implement effective school feeding programmesLearning from Experience: good practices from 45 years of school feedingA review of WFP’s experience in school feeding over 45 years that identifies best practices and key quality standards to ensure the sustainability and effectiveness of school feeding programmesHome-Grown School Feeding: a framework to link school feeding with local agricultural productionOpportunities to link school feeding with local agricultural production and the benefits of doing so.The new policy repositions school feeding as:A relevant response to hunger in all contextsAn effective safety nets (in addition to education, nutrition and other development benefits)A cost-effective, sustainable intervention
15School Feeding is an effective safety net SCHOOL FEEDING AS A SAFETY NETSchool Feeding is an effective safety netIt helps to protect vulnerable children during times of crisesIt safeguards nutrition, education and gender equality and provides a range of socio-economic benefitsIt confers a significant level of value transfer to those households with children enrolled in school or those with school-age childrenEmergency and protracted crisis: School feeding encourages children to enter and remain in school by providing a food value transfer to the household on the condition the children attend class.School Feeding can be an effective safety net in different contextsPost conflict/disaster, transition: SFPs can restore the educational system, it can encourage the return of IDPs and refugees by signalling that basic services are operating and it is thus safe to return home.Chronic hunger: In more stable situations, SFPs should become an increasingly integral safety net of government policies and strategies to alleviate hunger and poverty.
16Strategies for sustainability SF POLICY BASED ON 8 QUALITY STANDARDS1.Strategies for sustainabilitySound alignment with national policy frameworksStable funding and budgetingNeeds based, cost-effective quality programme designStrong institutional arrangements for implementation, monitoring and accountabilityStrategies for local production and sourcingStrong partnerships and inter-sector coordination (Brazil training center for Government officials)Strong community participation and ownership22.214.171.124.6.The new approach leads to a new generation of school feeding programmes, that are based on eight quality standards. These standards are aspirational, and essential to frame the design and implementation of sustainable school feeding programmes:A strategy for sustainability: Elements of sustainability are embodied in a comprehensive roadmap, a transition strategy that will be agreed upon with government and WFP and all school feeding stakeholders, by including milestones, timing, targets and benchmarks for achievements;National policy framework: National planning for school feeding should ensure that the government has identified the most appropriate role for school feeding in its development agenda, Poverty Reduction Strategies, education, nutrition or social protection sectors, or in sectors policies or plans which form the basis for basket funding or sector-wide approach that determine the allocation of donor resources;Stable funding and budgeting: Stable funding is a prerequisite for sustainability. As the programme becomes national, it needs a stable funding source independent of WFP. This funding may be through government core resources or through development funding. In the long term, a national budget line for school feeding is needed;Needs based, cost-effective quality programme design: School feeding programmes should be needs and design based according to a correct assessment of the situation in the country. Programme targeting is important to select the correct beneficiaries and to choose the right modalities of food delivery and a food basket with the right quality. Complementary actions such as food fortification and deworming should be a standard part of any school feeding programmes;Strong institutional arrangements for implementation, monitoring and accountability: A government institution or ministry should be responsible for the implementation of the school feeding programme and adequate resources, staff capacity, management skills, knowledge, and technology at central and sub-national levels made available. Robust implementation arrangements are necessary to ensure quality food and resources are managed transparently through adequate monitoring and reporting mechanisms.Strategy for local production and sourcing: Producing from the local market whenever feasible, is key to achieving sustainability while encouraging agricultural growth. School feeding programmes should include an action plan for local sourcing. Connecting small-scale farmers to markets and ensuring that a deliberate, incremental strategy is in place to tie supply to school feeding demand is important. Countries and partners should carefully balance international, national and local procurement of food to support local econommies without jeopardizing the quality and stability of the food pipeline.Strong partnerships and inter-sector coordination: Well-designed school feeding programmes include the involvement of many sectors, such as education, health, agriculture and local government, along with: an explicit link between school feeding and other school health and nutrition or social protection programmes; a coordination mechanism (task force, working groups, sector group, etc.); and strong operational partnerships.Community participation and ownership: School feeding programmes that respond to community needs, are locally owned and that incorporate some form of parental or community contribution tend to be the strongest programmes most likely to graduate successfully from donor assistance. Programmes that include this component from the beginning and consistently maintain it have the most success.7.8.16
17Secure sustainability School Feeding New Approach – Main objectives THE NEW APPROACH: OBJECTIVESImprove qualityImprove effectivenessimprove targetingIdentify the most appropriate modalities and food basketswiden the benefitsImprove efficiencyAssess costs, benefits and tradeoffsWiden coverageIncrease reachEstimated need to provide SF to 66M school childrenAdditional 75 million children worldwide not attending schoolA more effective and efficient implementation of the SFSecure sustainabilityEnsure transition to sustainable nationally owned programmesSupport mainstream of SF into national policiesEnhance national Governments technical capacity for implementationProvide additional assistance with resourcing and financing strategiesCoordinate partnershipsKey to shift School Feeding ownership to national governments and mainstream it into national policiesSchool Feeding New Approach – Main objectives
18THE NEW APPROACH: ENABLERS School Feeding New Approach – Main enablersCompetencesResourcesGlobal AdvocacyClear strategyWhat countries, timeframe, partners/ roles, resourcesStructured methodologyAnalytical frameworks & toolsCosts & ROI optimiz.schemesSolid implementation skillsLong-term, cross-country, large-scale experienceDeep country-level knowledge and relationshipsFunds1Funding, to run specific national and country-level initiativesGlobal funding, to run the corporate-level SF programNon–cash contributionsServices and logistic assetsGoods (e.g. food, drugs,..)Workforce / secondmentsRelationships with local governments and SHHigh-level endorsement from major influencersExecutive Directors of UN agenciesChairmen of private or public bodiesTestimonialsMajor testimonials as of today:President of the World BankFormer Ghana President John KufourHRH Princess of ThailandKey for WFP to set Global Partnershipsin order to complete the set of enablers1. Not allocated to field operations, materials and food
19The partnership is articulated around three areas THE WB/WFP PARTNERSHIPThe partnership is articulated around three areasSchool Feeding in the policy frameworkMainstream School Feeding into national development policies, plans and strategies, with clearly defined development objectivesStrengthening institutional capacityDevelop institutional capacity to implement school feeding programmes in an effective, cost-efficient and sustainable mannerSupport sustainabilityPromote transition in the longer term towards nationally-owned and resourced school feeding programmes
20WHERE ARE WE NOW?Rethinking School Feeding: social safety nets, child development, and the education sectorResult of a consultative process between WFP’s Policy Division and the World Bank’s Human Development NetworkJOINT PUBLICATIONIncreased demands by governments for school feeding as a response to the global crises in June 2008The World Bank, under its group cooperation with WFP, funded the expansion of 5 school feeding programmes in Burundi, Central African Republic, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti and LiberiaSCHOOL FEEDING AS A RESPONSE TO HIGH FOOD PRICESIMPLEMENTATION SUPPORTThe implementation process of the new approach will be done with the collaboration of WB in some countries.
21G8 SUMMIT STATEMENT ON FOOD SECURITY THE G8: CALL FOR FOOD SECURITY“Delivering food, cash and vouchers through effective emergency assistance as well as through national safety-nets and nutrition schemes, such as food and cash for work, unconditional cash transfer programs, school feeding and mother-and-child nutrition programs, is an imperative goal”.G8 SUMMIT STATEMENT ON FOOD SECURITYAccess to adequate and affordable nutritious food is a critical aspect of food security. Emergency assistance will remain an important means through which national authorities, supported by WFP and other specialized Agencies, Funds and Programmes, together with non-governmental organizations, can provide help to people facing acute hunger.Delivering food, cash and vouchers through effective emergency assistance as well as through national safety-nets and nutrition schemes, such as food and cash for work, unconditional cash transfer programs, school feeding and mother-and-child nutrition programs, is an imperative goal”
22With US$50 a child can be fed for an entire school year. THE NEEDJust US$0.25 will fill a cup with porridge, rice or beans and give a monthly ration to take home.With US$50 a child can be fed for an entire school year.WFP calculates that US$3.2 billion is needed per year to reach all hungry school age children.There are 66 million hungry school age children in the world.US$1.2 billion would allow WFP to reach these 23 million.23 million children go to school hungry in Africa.