Presentation on theme: "The post-Soviet inheritance Following the collapse of the Soviet Empire, states in the Black Sea Region inherited political and social networks and emerged."— Presentation transcript:
The post-Soviet inheritance Following the collapse of the Soviet Empire, states in the Black Sea Region inherited political and social networks and emerged with a common legacy of a lack of respect for the rule of law, absence of civil society, a large criminal underworld and shadow economy, endemic corruption and demoralized law enforcement and legal apparatus. This legacy established the necessary precondtions for the development of a serious and sophisticated organized crime problem -DR. Louise Shelley, Organized Crime in the Former Soviet Union
Black Sea Today The Wider Black Sea Region (WBSR) - including the Caucasus, Balkans and Newly Independent States - border potential sources of nuclear, chemical and biological materials, energy resources, the hot wars of Afghanistan and Iraq, and frozen conflicts in which terrorism is bred. As such, the WBSR exemplifies the acute peril of WMD proliferation. This region is of immense strategic importance due to its geopolitical position and major role in oil and natural gas transit by ship or pipelines. However, its multiple land and sea points of entry, and often inadequate resources and training for national authorities charged with interdicting trafficking render WBSR states particularly vulnerable to illicit trafficking of dual-use technologies and materials. States in the Black Sea area often lack effective institutions to track, much less stop and prevent, WMD trafficking. The transitory condition of a number of states within the WBSR and the post-Communist legacy weaken the region's rule of law. High levels of corruption and the significant number of unemployed, well-trained scientists further complicate WMD security matters.
THREATS Drug Trafficking Arms Trafficking Human Trafficking Illegal Migration Terrorism Nuclear Proliferation Energy Transportation Security
Players and Actors NATO The US The EU The Russian Federation
Unresolved Conflicts and Break-away Territories in the Black Sea Trans-Dineister Republic in Moldova Abkhazia and South Ossetia in Georgia Azerbaijan vs. Armenia: Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Republic of Crimea in Ukraine [potential conflict] Chechnya and Dagestan
Frontline Countries Romania (Member of EU but not NATO) Bulgaria (Member of EU but not NATO) Greece (Member of NATO and EU) Turkey (Member of NATO but not EU)
Human Trafficking Greece now accounts for 90% of the EUs detected illegal border crossings, compared to 75% in 2009 Turkey has made significant changes in its visa regime in which over 60 nationalities no longer require visa
Why it isnt improving Gil Arias Fernandez, Director of Frontex: "The reasons are lack of reception centres in both countries, lack of readmission agreements with some countries of origin, the proximity of Istanbul to the border and the low prices of airline flights, the low visa regime to Turkey and the large number of trafficking networks operating in Turkey with Greek staff,"
Drug Trafficking in the Black Sea SEE organised crime groups are now believed to be in control of the most of the heroin trafficking on the continent, and SEE is a key drug smuggling route towards Western Europe: an estimated 110 metric tons of opium pass though the region annually, as do smaller amounts of cocaine, synthetic drugs and precursors.
Arms Trafficking The lack of state control in the Transdniester region between Moldova and Ukraine contributes greatly to problems of SALW supply and control. International assistance in the region is required, especially with regard to customs and border control and the resolution of the Transdniester standoff.
Terrorism The prolonged war in Chechnya, a cause now hijacked by Wahabbi militants, continues to encourage a massive flow of arms through the region and has created a terrorist hotbed
Nuclear Proliferation in the Black Sea
Center of the Worlds Nuclear Black Market Suspected and Known Source of Most Nuclear Contraband: Russia Preferred Destination: Turkey
Successful Illicit Trafficking access to the contraband identification of a potential buyer safe transport of the goods, usually across international boundaries.
Existing Security Mechanisms in the Black Sea Region Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization Black Sea Naval Cooperation Task Group Operation Black Sea Harmony (OBSH) Black Sea Coast and Border Guards Cooperation Forum Confidence and Security Building Measures in the Naval Field in the Black Sea Black Sea Commission