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Global Leadership: A Special Discernment Challenge André L. Delbecq J. Thomas and Kathleen L. McCarthy University Professor Santa Clara University Santa.

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Presentation on theme: "Global Leadership: A Special Discernment Challenge André L. Delbecq J. Thomas and Kathleen L. McCarthy University Professor Santa Clara University Santa."— Presentation transcript:

1 Global Leadership: A Special Discernment Challenge André L. Delbecq J. Thomas and Kathleen L. McCarthy University Professor Santa Clara University Santa Clara, CA Tel/Fax ©

2 Henri J.M.Nouwen It is not easy to distinguish between what we are call to do versus dong what we want to do or think we should do. When we listen collectively in silence to Gods voice and speak with our colleagues in trust we will know what we are called to do, and will do it with grateful heart

3 Each Period Has Particular Discernment Challenges Agrarian Age –Familial Businesses (Virtue Ethics) Industrial Age –Command and Control Bureaucracies (Avoidance of Hubris and Power Distortions) Technology Age –Flat, Organic, Decentralized, Loosely-Coupled (Subsidiarity - Communitarian Ethics)

4 Organizational Discernment Associated With Global Age Still Emerging Requires Continuing Shared Exploration Nano, Biological, Knowledge Age Plus Global Overlay But What IS Clear Is That Decision-Making Complexity Is Changing

5 One Recent Exploration Global Change Symposium (March, 2009) –Institute for Global Innovation Management Northeastern University –The Global Leadership Advancement Center San Jose State University –Center for Organizational Spirituality Santa Clara University

6 Partial List of Participants Harry Lane and Bert Spector, Northeastern Univ. Jean Neumann Tavistock Institute, London Barry Morris, Left Lane Consulting, Ltd. Naoe Imura, Kyoto University Allan Bird, Univ. of St. Louis, MO Joyce Osland, SJSU Julia Gluesing Wayne State University Andre Delbecq, Santa Clara University Sully Taylor, Portland State University (Caveat: My Personal Perspective)

7 Premises Emerging From Literature and Dialog After Sifting and Winnowing Theory and Cases Focus on Mission and Strategy –Independent Variable Treat Trans-national and Cultural Differences as Moderating Variables –Avoid Undue Reification of National Differences E.g. Chinese vs. European vs. Latin Acknowledges Success of Private Sector As An Effective instrument of multinational integration

8 Key Discernment Questions Become: What Does Organization Wish to Achieve? What Would Be An Appropriate Strategic Process? How Can Global Complexities Be Effectively Addressed Not: How To Do Business In ____

9 Theoretical and Professional Implications Global Leadership can be analyzed as a genre of complex, strategic change Discernment challenges can be focused on discrete steps

10 Urgency of Discernment For Global Leadership BUSINESS URGENCY Market Imperative: Largest Potential For Growth Is International –Billion New Customers –Youth vs. Aging Demographic Differences Average Technology Start-up Operates in Twelve Countries Within Seven Years

11 BUSINESS URGENCY-cont. Supply Chain Imperative: Interlinked Partnerships An Economic Necessity –Global suppliers for parts, process and service support –Global integration of the labor market Knowledge Workers Unskilled and Skilled Workforces Differentiated Economic Roles in Flat World

12 BUSINESS URGENCY-cont. Knowledge Imperative: Rapid Change an Economic Requirement –Freely available, open sourced information flows –Formal, informal and unformal (heuristic) knowledge emerges spontaneously –Instantaneous communication Capacity of Continuous Change Becomes A Required Organizational Capability

13 BUSINESS URGENCY-cont Therefore,Global Leadership Is a Precondition for Firm Survival Discernment Is Required To Enable Product/Service, Process Innovation, and International Market Penetration Pope John XXIII: Avoiding False Dualism

14 Business as Pivotal Institution 80+% People of God –Serve neighbor Needed product or service –Experience community Primary group as central –Talents embraced or diminished Gifts of Mystical Body Enabled –Wealth is Generated Supports family, society, arts, education, religion etc. God In All Things Not a Second Rate Path of Holiness

15 Additional Societal Urgency Business Must Share in Finding Solutions to Meta-Societal Concerns –Transformation of global markets following the meltdown of economic and financial systems Stepping away from greed and fraud –Redistribution of access to wealth creation capacity to avoid world-wide anger Avoiding the pitfalls of long term reliance on aid

16 Societal Urgency-cont. Assist in Finding Solutions to Looming Environmental Tragedy –Impacting on species, water shortages, climate change and energy resources - ultimately on human survival. Each Business Must Be Part of Solution

17 Societal Urgency-cont. Dealing With Challenges of Demographic Instability and Migration –Movement of peoples toward zones of economic viability Family disruption, education and social support shortfalls –Absence of social supports and environmental sustainability in newly developed economic zones When you come into your land, do not oppress the stranger. Remember you were strangers in the land of Egypt.

18 Societal Urgency Therefore Global Leadership Based on Sound Discernment Is Also Required To Partner in Planetary and Human Survival

19 Echoes Ignatian Criteria for Discernment of Mission Where people can be reached who can cause good to spread Where there is impact on many people Where results can be durable Where there is impact on the poor Ignatius of Loyola - Constitutions

20 A New Generations Challenge Characteristics of the Next Generation That Are Hopeful –More concern for the common good Immersion experiences and service learning –Greater capacity for collaborative effort Team based education and recreation –Sense the weakness of prior societal patterns See alienation of parents generation –Stronger values orientation Spirituality as a mega-trend

21 Elements of Global Complexity- Multiplicity Multiplicity: Differences In- –Culture, values, expectations –Norms of transparency and information sharing –Language and familiar managerial argot –Law, governance structures, control systems and regulation –Employee relationships –Economic, political, environmental frameworks

22 Additional Elements of Global Complexity Geographic Dispersion Multiple locations, time zones Virtual communication difficulties –Unreliability –Distortions due to limitations of communication technology –Difficulties in interpreting cues and signals

23 Meets Criteria for Complex Change Means and Ends Uncertain –A Discovery (Discernment) Process, –Not Simply a Rational-Technical Expert Process

24 Resolution Requires A Paradox Increased Boundary Spanning Efforts –Multiple Stakeholders –Capacity for deep listening and interpretation –Patience in conducting dialog throughout the decision process While At the Same Time--

25 Paradox-Cont. While At the Same Time-- Introducing Degree of Simplicity through –Clarity of decision sequences through a commonly understood process –Clear Loci of decision authority –Timely implementation

26 Ultimately Discernment Must Be Based On Noble Purpose Good Processes Good People Leading to Innovative Outcomes

27 Familiar Step Process Model for Complex Change 1) Visioning 2) Problem Exploration 3) Solution Search 4) Pilot Testing 5) Implementation 6) Double-Loop Assessment

28 1)Visioning Incorporating Noble Purpose –Meta Societal Goals Triple Bottom Line –Addressing Real Human Needs Across Differentiated Populations (including bottom of pyramid) –Accepting Discipline of Efficiency and Effectiveness Shared Vision Must Evolve Across Stakeholders –Interpretable in multiple cultures Creating Organizational Readiness Failures: Forcing Behavior

29 Requires Discernment - Not Simply Rational Analysis Overlaying Emotional/Spiritual Intelligence –Holistic Reflection Current Neurological Evidence –Inclusive of In-Spiration Avoiding Often-documented Distortions –Hubris and Greed Creating a Shared Sense of Noble Purpose Failures: Focusing Only On Numbers

30 Without Prayer-In Spiration- There is No Discernment Parallels Across Traditions –Reformed Christian Tradition - Veni Creator Spiritus (Lutheran, Anglican, Pentecostal etc. –Jewish Tradition - Creator God who Shares Wisdom and Acts in History –Taoist - Chi Permeating the 10,000 things –Hindu - Non-dualism Etc. Taking Time for Silence, Reflection and Sharing Out of Silence In Each Step of the Process

31 Frank Houdek, SJ Everyone who seeks meaning in lifes efforts must learn to listen with all their capacity in order to recognize the single voice that bears a thousand names. It is the voice spoken to us from the center of our personal being.

32 The Upanishads He is God, hidden in all beings, their inmost soul who is in all. He watches the works of creation, lives in all things, watches all things.

33 Tao Te Ching Look it cannot be seen --- it is beyond form. Listen, it cannot be heard --- it is beyond sound. Grasp, it cannot be held --- it is intangible.

34 2) Problem Exploration Being Present to Voices of Those Impacted –clients/users/customers/patients etc. Deep Listening Experiential, not simply numeric 60 % success rate in innovation Failure: Technology Push By Technical Elites vs. Market Pull

35 3) Solution Search Contact With Gatekeepers Across Knowledge Sources –Scientific/Technnical/Prior Experience –External to Sponsoring Organization Utilizing Capabilities of Information Age 50% Solution Elements From External Sources Search Behavior More Important than Brilliance Failures: Intellectual Incest

36 4) Pilot Testing Alpha Test With Early Innovators –Refining Design Through Action Learning Beta Test With Average Adopters –Understand Support, Learning Curve, Demand Action Learning Failure: Moving from Design to Implementation

37 5) Implementation Resourcing Clear Organizational Mandate Based on Shared Review of Beta Evidence Robust Implementation Design With Support to Each Adopting Segment Support During Roll-Out More Important Than Technical Design Attributes Failure: Expecting Later Adopters To Learn Without Assistance

38 6) Double-Loop Assessment At end of each step At end of total effort Creating Organization Learning Regarding Way of Proceeding Failure: Each Project Must Create A Process From Scratch

39 Leadership Requirements Elements of Complexity in Visioning, Problem Identification, Solution Search, Pilot Testing and Implementation Together With Multiple Boundaries and Cultural Complexities Exceed Capacity of Single Person Leadership Decision Team Headed By Committed Champion No Known Success Story Associated Superior Single Leader

40 An Intermediate Sized Group With Decision Authority Adhocracy With Authority To –Manage Step Process –Manage Communications With Stakeholders –Proceed Through Beta Testing (unless unexpected findings emerge) –Hand-back Strategy to Authority Matrix For Implementation Strategic Change Team Failure: Associated With Bureaucratic Locus of Change

41 Rule of Three- Justice Requirement Principle of No Surprises – Mandate Following Visioning But Requiring Continued Communication (Modifications That Improve, Not Vetos) Rule of Three - Intensive Communication When Problem Adumbrations Emerge When Solution Adumbrations Emerge When Final Design Recommendations Emerge Minority Accommodations For a Time Evaluation Against Concerns

42 Key Roles, Strategic Team Technical Champion: Scientific, Technical, Engineering Knowledge Leader - Formal Leader Statesperson: Sponsor of Effort in Corridors of Vertical Power - Political Interface Coordinator: Communication and Relations Leader Horizontally Across Impacted Units Multi-Nationalist: Experienced and Linked Through Prior Relationships Across Cultures Internet Monitor: Linked Into Cyber Communication Networks May Require Multiple Players For Each Role

43 Boundary Spanning As Critical Majority of Failures In Strategic Change Efforts Related to Boundary Spanning Failures Not Technical Inadequacy More than 60 % Success Depends On Communication No Known Success Story Associated With Individual Leadership

44 The Technical Team Selected for Expertise Relative to the Challenges of Each Stage of Step Process Model –Adhocracy Not Composed of Fixed Team Composition Must Include Interpenetration Across Multi- national Knowledge Base Marketing is Not Multi-cultural Interpenetration

45 Required Overarching Global Leadership Skills Political Savvy and Cultural Sensitivity Capacity for Relationship Building Excel at Systems Thinking Conceptual Flexibility Authenticity, Transparency, Integrity Courage In Face of Difficulties Beyond Expert Power Professional, Psychological, Spiritual Maturity

46 God Works In Our Imperfections Solo Celebrity Leader a Superstitious Attribution of Causality New Understanding of the Distribution of Gifts in the Mystical Body Error Correction Through Shared Discernment Accomplished Through In-Spiraton Within Our Human Condition

47 Dealing With New Virtual World Spontaneous uncontrolled Communications Example –4 member team, 2300 individuals, messages (Gluesing, NSF Study) Requiring Network Leader as New Role

48 Virtual World-cont.The Buzz Who is talking? Who are emergent sub-topic champions? Who are network gatekeepers for summative perspectives? Who is not included but important? What is technical, emotional, value content? –Etc. –Critical Role of Network Leader –Hopeful New Software

49 Concl: Discernment in Context of Global Leadership Must- Move Beyond Success to Significance –Include Meta Goals With Business Goals Impose a Degree of Order Through Step-Process Sequence –Controlled Chaos Demands Pooled Leadership Within a Diverse Team –Exceed Capacities of Single Individuals Requires High Level Psychological and Spiritual Development Global Corporation Has a Critical Capacity and Role

50 Conclusion: A Warning More than Half the Time Strategic Decision-Making Fails –Assume from past practices –Under-attend stakeholder voices –Truncate Search Behavior –Do Not Bring to Bear Values Difficulties Manifest in Best Organizations Paul Nutt, Ohio State, 1999

51 The Foundation I will say one more thing and please dont forget it. Pray. Pray much. Problems such as these are not solved by human efforts. Pedro Arrupe, S.J. Final Address to Jesuits in Thailand Essential Writings p. 109

52 Abraham Joshua Heschel We are Gods stake in human history. We are the dawn and the dusk; the challenge and the test. How strange to be a (Chosen Child of God) and to go astray on Gods perilous errands. We have been offered as a pattern of worship and as prey for scorn,but there is still more in our destiny. We carry the gold of God in our souls to forge the gates of heaven.

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