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Facilitating higher education mobility for the future views from Japanese context Akiyoshi Yonezawa CAHE, Tohoku University 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Facilitating higher education mobility for the future views from Japanese context Akiyoshi Yonezawa CAHE, Tohoku University 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Facilitating higher education mobility for the future views from Japanese context Akiyoshi Yonezawa CAHE, Tohoku University 1

2 Japan in a global policy context Abe ( ): maintain a leading position in Asia by opening up Japanese society – Internationalization of Japanese HE became one of top policy agenda Fukuda ( ) : Education as a diplomatic tool – Plan for inviting 300,000 international students – Global 30: select 30 universities for supporting internationalization – Proposal of Asian ERASMUS Aso (2008- ): Aiming to take a leadership for tackling with Economic Crisis – Central Council for Education (Advisory Council for MEXT) starts discussion on roadmap for improving global competitiveness and internationalization of HE 2

3 Japanese HE and Globalization Highly privatized international student market – 80 to 90 % of international students are technically self-financed – Relying on the over-demand in neighboring countries, and over- supply in home HE market Internationalization in two arenas (Global/domestic: Teichler 1999) – Non-English speaking but substantially large Demographic pressure both in society as a whole – Low birth rate, decreasing youth population, aging (Yonezawa & Kim 2008) – Retirement of first baby boomers and unpopularity of engineering profession among youngsters Rapid growth and internationalization of neighboring countries Limited scholarships for studying abroad by home students

4 Number and Share of International Students in Japan (2006) 4

5 Two types of approaches for internationalization 1.(mainly national universities): strengthen the research capacities to internationally competitive levels: but relying on domestic grants (international reviews becoming common) 2.(mainly private universities): improve the quality of education to meet international standards: quality assurance including foreign accreditation, benchmarking etc. 5

6 Profile of Top 200 Japanese Universities (QS/THES 2008) 6

7 7 Singapore100 Germany97 France88 Malaysia87 Mexico85 China78 South Korea77 North Korea69 Afghanistan67 Macau66 Japan, Mongolia, Lao65 Cambodia63

8 Classes taught in English Bachelor programs – 0%: 29.1% (national: 16.7%, private: 31.6%) – 10% or more: 18.5% (n: 8.3%, p: 19.8%) Master programs – 0%: 58.1% (n: 23.3%, p: 67.8%) – 10% or more: 9.5% (n: 23.3%, p: 6.8%) Doctorate programs – 0%: 66.5% (n: 25.9%, p: 76.3%) – 10% or more: 10.3% (n: 25.9%, p: 7.1%) 8

9 Internationalization & Finance 9

10 Linkage with labor market: Recruitment fit for long-term employment in a homogeneous culture by Japanese firms – Job hunting long before graduation with time- consuming selection process – In-house promotion linked with seniority based salary scheme: unattractive for non-Japanese white-collar workers and high-skilled professionals – Lack of career path to be a leader capable for managing multi-national enterprises 10

11 Salary increase of MBA holder (Kato 2003) 11

12 Facilitating higher education mobility for the future in Japanese context Mismatch between policy vision for a global leader and reality in HE far from cosmopolitan environment Different agenda are dealt with in a single word – Research is stressed at national universities, while curriculum/teaching is put importance at private universities – Hierarchies: majorities are relatively domestic or local Danger: Internationalization of HE will become a dead letter? – Manipulation for achieving an ambitious goals: Redefinition of international students, discussion for developing Japanese original world university rankings Internationalization through internal resources – Lack of regional-level funds to rely on, no market competitiveness in English-based education services Need for structural change of Japanese society as a whole 12

13 Merci bien! 13


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