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Ministry of National Education 1 Indonesia Reading Proficiency and Influencing Factors Jakarta, June 28-29, 2011 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Ministry of National Education 1 Indonesia Reading Proficiency and Influencing Factors Jakarta, June 28-29, 2011 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ministry of National Education 1 Indonesia Reading Proficiency and Influencing Factors Jakarta, June 28-29, 2011 1

2 Contents 2 2 A. Introduction B. National Policies Implementation C. Trends in Indonesia Students Reading Performance, PISA 2000-2009 E. Influencing Factors F. Conclusions and Recommendations G. Glossary


4 4 THE IMPROVEMENT OF ACCESS AND THE QUALITY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL AND THE RELEVANCE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION/POLYTECHNIC 4 Secondary Education consist of general secondary education and vocational secondary education (Educ. Low 20/2003; article: 18). Vocational education is a subsystem education which specially help the student to prepare themselves in their future workplace (US National Council for Research into Vocational Education) ECE: 28, 8 million students ES : 39,5 million students JHS: 13,38 million Students SHS: 9,11 million students HE: 5,2 million students Accelerating and expanding of Indonesia economic development in 2011-2025 THE IMPROVEMENT OF ACCESS AND THE QUALITY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL AND THE RELEVANCE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION Stock Supply of HDR National energy shed National food shed National main gate tourism Population: 240 million (2009 estimate) Eslands: 17.504 Mother Tongue: 583 languages/dialects National industrial &manufacture stimulant National NDR overflow &HDR prosperous National production & earth products processing

5 THE IMPROVEMENT OF ACCESS AND QUALITY OF THE EARLY CHILDHOOD AND BASIC EDUCATION 5...early childhood period is the golden age in the childs growth period. This is a valuable period and determines a child to recognize various facts around as the stimulant to the personality, psychomotor, cognitive and social development... 5 The early childhood education is held before the primary education (Educ. Low No 20/2003, article: 28) Early Childhood Educ. 0-6 year: 28,8 million Basic Edu. 7-15 year: 44.712 million Sense of hearing & visibling A g e year language Higher cognitive function month bornborn Literacy Studies: PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS, ICCS, INAP, SABER, NE, SBM BE AdultAdult DeathDeath decade ConceptConcept

6 1,5 % 8,6 % ES/MI 1.8 % 24,0 % JHS/MTs 4,27 % 51.7 % SHS/VOC /MA HE 31,05 juta 12,69 juta 9,11 juta 5,2 juta = % drop out = % Graduation dont continue to the higher level of education 6 GER EC Educ = 56.7% GER ES-other = 117.2% NER ES-other = 95.2% GER JHS-other = 98.3% GRE SHS-other = 73.0 % GRE HE = 26.3% Distribution of budget directly to school (BOS and BOMM) on time, on use and amount. Integration of NE with the selection of HE. National policy for completion of acces and stock supplay National policy for completion of acces and stock supplay 6 BOS BO MM

7 B. National Policies Implementation 7

8 The Focuss of National Educational Development Policies Year 2010-2014 BE HE exploring – strengthening - empowering SHS CHARACTER Education INTEGRATION & HABITUATION ECE ACADEMICAL Education IMPROVED ACCESS AND SECONDARY EDUCATION QUALITY AND RELEVANCE GENERAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION (VS+POLITECHNIC ). IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF EDUCATOR AND EDUCATION PERSONNEL IMPROVED ACCESS AND COMPETITIVENESS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IMPROVED ACCESS & QUALITY OF THE EARLY CHILDHOOD OF EDUCATION COMPLETION BASIC EDUCATION NINE YEARS OF QUALITY 4 5 3 2 1 5 PROGRAM PRIORITIES POLICIES...educational development is addressed to develop Indonesian intelligent and competitive people through increased availability, affordability, quality and relevance, equality and certainty of obtaining educational services…. 8 Literacy Studies: PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS, ICCS, INAP, SABER, NE & SBM 8

9 SPM ( Minim Services Standard) SSN ( Nastional School Stadard) RSBI SBI (International Based School) (0%) SPM (Minimum Services Standard) (41,31%) (10,15%) (50,39%) (0,65%) National Policy for Completion of MSS Into ES and JHS National Policy for Completion of MSS Into ES and JHS THE IMPROVEMENT OF EDUCATIONAL SERVICE QUALITY School Amount of Standardized School <SPMSPMSSNRSBISBITOTAL ES65.86975.9654.8312390146.904 %44,8451,713,290,160 JHS8.89215.2269.711356034.185 %26,0144,5428,411,04 0 TOTAL 74.806 91.243 14.545 5950 181.089 % 41,31 50,39 8,03 0,330 Completion of SPM Educational Unit ES and JHS Will be completed in 2014 9 (International Based School Pioneer) Quality Assurance (QA), Quality Control (QC), and Quality Improvement (QI)

10 National Policy for Improvement Of the Educators and the Education Personnel 10 Teachers are required to have academic qualifications, competency, educator certificate, physically and mentally health, and have the ability to achieve national education goals (Gov. Low 14/2005 Act. 8) Teachers who do not have academic qualifications and educator certificate referred to in this Act shall meet the academic qualifications and certificates of educators at the latest 10 (ten) years since the enactment of this Act. (Gov Low 14/2005 Act 82) 10 > S1/D4 < S1/D4 Certified Not Yet Certified TREND % QUALIFIED TEACHER S1/4 TREND % CERTIFIED TEACHER Note: Target is already consider the passing in and passing out teacher until 2014 223.000 guru= 325.000 guru =

11 National policy of learning resources and instruction facilities development Teaching learning models development Instruction materials models development Standard development of educational textbook assessment Remedial book assessment that standardized Supporting on education book writers Textbooks translating Competency development of education book writers 11

12 National Policy Recommendation of Educational Budget Allocation for QA, QC and QI 1.Strengthening the weakest link (affirmative action). 2.The benefit is felt directly by student /community (impact). 3.Achieve the goals mandated by the Strategic Plan of MONE, RKP/priority activities plan 2012, and RPJMN/national middle educational plan 2010-2014. 4.Answering solving the problem at hand (relevance). 5.Ensure accuracy and use of budget allocations to be transferred to the regions (Standard procedure 0peration). 6.Strengthening quality assurance, quality control, and quality improvement through monitoring and evaluation. 12


14 The objective of Indonesia participating PISA study To find the information of student performance in term of reading, mathematic and science literacy for benchmarking with other countries, so that the PISA results could be implemented as a set of tool for policy recommendation formulation for improving the quality of education 14

15 The scope PISA The focus of Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 is reading literacy. The scope of PISA study 2009: a)A profile of reading knowledge and skills, including digital literacy; b) Contextual indicators relating reading performance results to student & school characteristics; c) d) Students engagement in reading activities, and learning strategies; and Trend data on change in student attitudes and in socio-economic indicators, and also on the impact of some indicators on the reading performance results. The Coverage of the study: 470.000 out of 26 million students age 15 from 65 countries(34 OECD & 31 partner countries) are involved in PISA2009. 15

16 Sample, Domain and Test Design sample Domain Science (35 items) Reading (28 items) Problem solving (19 items) Type of items: Multiple Choice, Shot Answer, Essay Test Design 167 items 13 items cluster (M7, S2, R2, PS2) 13 test books (4 cluster/test book) Use linking items for setting items calibrating Indonesia have participated in PISA study since 2000. 5.136 students from 183 schools are involved in the study Schools are located in rural (22,2%), small town (43%), town (14,7%), city (13,24%) & large city (6,74%). 16

17 LevelLower score limit Characteristics of tasks 6 698 Tasks at this level typically require the reader: to make multiple inferences, comparisons and contrasts; to demonstrate a full and detailed understanding of one or more texts; to deal with unfamiliar ideas, in the presence of prominent competing information; and to generate abstract categories for interpretations. Reflective tasks may require the reader to hypothesize about or critically evaluate a complex text on an unfamiliar topic, and applying sophisticated understandings from beyond the text 5 626 Tasks at this level that involve the reader to locate and organize several pieces of deeply embedded information, inferring which information in the text is relevant. Reflective tasks require critical evaluation or hypothesis, drawing on specialized knowledge. For all aspects of reading, tasks at this level typically involve dealing with concepts that are contrary to expectations. 4 553 Tasks at this level that involve the reader to locate and organize several pieces of embedded information. Reflective tasks at this level require readers to use formal or public knowledge to hypothesize about or critically evaluate a text. Readers must demonstrate an accurate understanding of long or complex texts whose content or form may be unfamiliar. 3 480 Tasks at this level require the reader to locate, and in some cases recognise the relationship between several pieces of information. Interpretative tasks at this level require the reader to integrate several parts of a text in order to identify a main idea, understand a relationship or construe the meaning of a word or phrase. Reflective tasks at this level may require connections, comparisons, and explanations, or they may require the reader to evaluate a feature of the text. 2 407 Some tasks at this level require the reader to locate one or more pieces of information; and to recognize the main idea in a text. Tasks at this level may involve comparisons or contrasts based on a single feature in the text. Typical reflective tasks at this level require readers to make a comparison or several connections between the text and outside knowledge. 1a 335 Tasks at this level require the reader: to locate one or more independent pieces of explicitly stated information; to recognise the main theme or authors purpose in a text about a familiar topic; and to make a simple connection between information. Typically the required information in the text is prominent and there is little, if any, competing information. 1b 262 Tasks at this level require the reader to locate a single piece of explicitly stated information in a prominent position in a short, syntactically simple text with a familiar context and text type. The text typically provides support to the reader, such as repetition of information, pictures or familiar symbols. There is minimal competing information. 12 Summary descriptions for the seven levels of proficiency in reading 17

18 2009 PISA Reading Scores Some national policies: Completion of MSS Into ES and JHS Improvement of the Educators and the Education Personnel learning resources and instruction facilities development Recommendation of Educational Budget Allocation for QA, QC and QI activities 18

19 GNI/GDP Non-OECD dan PISA Literasi No.Country / TerritoryGNI/GDPPISA 2000PISA 2003PISA 2006 1.Liechtenstein65,000519538526 2.Latvia8,100466485488 3.Russian Federation5,780/8,030480469477 4.Argentina5,150394-387 5.Brazil4,730338361372 6.Thailand2,990/3,420435419420 7.Tunisia2,970-360367 8.Columbia2,740--372 9.Jordan-/2,480--395 10.Indonesia1,420/369369362393 11.Kyrgyzstan490--316 19 Indonesia students performance will be better rather than other countries if Gross National Income (GNI) or Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has to be increased

20 Score point change in reading performance between 2000 and 2009 Peru Chile Albania Indonesia Latvia Israel Poland Portugal Liechtenstein Brazil Korea Hungary Germany Greece Hong Kong-China Switzerland Mexico OECD average-26 BelgiumBulgaria Italy Denmark Norway Russian Federation Japan Romania United States Iceland New Zealand France Thailand Canada Finland Spain Australia Czech Republic Sweden Argentina Ireland 0000040121 3 43 282138609086898174 77636221201715 68543090 Change in Reading Performance in PISA 2000-2009 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 8 20 Change in treading performance PISA 2000-2009 is 31 point 31

21 Thailand Tunisia AlbaniaHong Kong-China Uruguay Azerbaijan Trinidad and Tobago Jordan Shanghai-China RomaniaPortugalPoland Russian Federation CroatiaFranceItaly Slovak RepublicLithuania Greece Ireland Serbia SwitzerlandNew ZealandUnited StatesLuxembourg United Kingdom Denmark Australia Dubai (UAE) CanadaIcelandBrazilIndonesia 1.00 0.50 0.00 -0.50 -1.50 Indonesia -2.00 Note: Economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) index was derived from three indices: (1)highest occupational status of parents, (2) highest educational level of parents in years of education, and (3) home possessions Economic, Social and Cultural Status (ESCS) Index 21

22 YearAverage ScoreRankNumber of Countries 20003713941 20033823940 20063934856 20094025765 Indonesias Rank in Reading Performance, PISA 2000-2009 Source: OECD Reports 9 Indonesia students reading performance have steadily improved during 2000-2009 period. While, its rank depends upon the number of countries participating in PISA study 22

23 Level20002009 Level 168.753.5 Level 224,834,3 Level 36,111,2 Level 40,41,0 Level 50,0 Level 6-0,0 Indonesia students literacy proficiency levels (%) PISA 2000-20089 13 During 2000-2009, Indonesia students reading performance have consistently improved. Percentage of students proficient at level 2 or above has increased. While, students proficient at level 1 or less ( level 1) have decreased 23

24 501 499 497 495 402 393 382 371 IndonesiaOECD Average 2000 2003 2006 2009 Indonesia students reading performance have steadily improved from 2000-2009. While OECD students performance have been stagnant during the same period 7 Indonesia Students Reading Performance in PISA 2000-2009 24

25 IndonesiaOECD Average 402 499 383 474 420 Indonesia Students Reading Performance in PISA 2009: By Gender Total Boys Girls Girls performed better than boys in reading performance 10 513 25

26 Percentage of Indonesian students at each proficiency level on the reading scale in PISA 2009 OECD Average OECD/Girls OECD/Boys Indonesia Indonesia/Girls Indonesia/Boys Level < 1b level 1b level 1a level 2 level 3 level 4 level 5 level 6 The higher the proficiency level, the better students reading competency. In PISA 2009, over 50% of the Indonesian students reading proficiency is at level 1 or below 11 26

27 494 495 493 409 402 405 399 397 14 IndonesiaOECD Access & Retrieve Integrate & Interpret Reflect & Evaluate Continous Texts Non-Continous Texts Total 27 Reading Performance 2009: Indonesia and OECD

28 501 492 533 501 513 480 495 480 486 492 407 408 410 420 390 398 394 392 373 YesNoYesNo IndonesiaOECD Read non fictions* Read magazine* Read fictions* Read comic books Read newspapers* Students who are engaged in reading activities performed better in reading competency 18 28 Students Reading Performance and Reading Materials


30 Logical Framework of the Influencing Factors of Reading Performance 16 Socio-economic background Gender Reading habits Approaches to learning Reading performance Source: Derived from OECD Report 2010 30 Parent educ level Language at home

31 Reading Performance and Socio-Economic Factors Reading performance Vs. GDP Score GDP/ Capita (000 US$) Reading perform. Vs. parents education score % Pop in the age 35-44 w/ tertiary ed. Reading perform. Vs. spending on education Score Cumulative expenditure (000 US$) Reading perform. Vs. share of socio- Score economically disadvantage student Share of student ESCS Index below -1 28 Parents education and socio-economic conditions of students show important determinants of students reading performance 31

32 Detailed Social-Economic Factors Influencing Reading Performance 29 One point increase is in the ESCS index is expected to increase 17 points in students reading performance 32

33 Engagement in Reading, Learning Strategies and Reading Performance 30 Diversity of reading materials and memorization strategy contribute to improvement of students reading performance 33

34 Student parents education level Country Fulfilled the Higher Education Level % Average Achievement Fulfilled the Academy Level % Average Achievement Fulfilled the Secondary/Vocation al Level % Average Achievement Japan455761855536536 Korea355801556041551 Malaysia115482052627518 Indonesia9465643824433 Chili164801044432415 Saudi Arabia274240012404 South Africa113411328030250 Rata2 Internasional 285071748728472 34

35 Language students in accordance with tests used in the house CountryAlways % Average Achieve ment Almost always % Average Achieve ment Sometimes % Average Achieveme nt Never % Average Achieveme nt Japan9455445531--0 Korea71558285621--0 Malaysia5150214521285187523 Indonesia22421114275741910417 Chili87416940843570-- Saudi Arabia1003980-- South Africa1834793105725215153 Rata2 Internasional 6848211483174424389 35

36 The amount of books at home Country> 200 % Average Achieve ment 1001-200 % Average Achieve ment 26-100 % Average Achieve ment 11-25 % Average Achievem ent 0-10 % Average Achieve ment Japan1758417567325522253913517 Korea1959622572335561053315514 Malaysia55579540285244050117482 Indonesia1--3449194314541632416 Chili54847458274373740223374 Saudi Arabia104229414254103339123382 South Africa63155316142883124144218 Rata2 Internasional 1550613498274832645818438 36

37 The confidence of students in reading CountryHigh Confidence % Average Achievement Average Confidence % Average Achievement Less Confidence % Average Achievemen t Japan205954655134529 Korea206124255638553 Malaysia385304850014496 Indonesia40418534217442 Chili464344439310407 Saudi Arabia58418363786366 South Africa45282452159207 Rata2 Internasional 484903844513430 37


39 Conclusion The position of Indonesian students' literacy skills compared with literacy benchmarking in the developing and growing countries in the world through the results of the PISA assessment study has given both valuable lessons learn for policy makers at the national and regional formulation of the policy in order to improve the quality of national education. 39

40 Continues ….. Since 2000, Indonesian students performance in reading have improved steadily. The score increase from 371 in PISA 2000 to 402 in PISA 2009. Indonesia is one of few countries that has made a significant improvement in student reading performance during 2000-2009. During the same period, variation in the student s performance has also decreased. It is partly due to improvements among low-achieving students. Important determining factors of the students reading performance include: a) economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) index, b) availability of full-time certified teachers, c) students learning strategy, and d) student ICT activities. 40

41 continue …. The results of quality of inputs, processes, and outputs of education were: (1) the level of student competence, (2) deep levels of the material/syllabus, (3) conditions of the learning activities, (4) the ability of teachers, (5) utilization of the school environment for learning activities, (6) implementation of standards and practices of assessment activities, (7) the function of the leadership at the schools in term of school quality improvement, and (8) the formulation of policies to involve students, teachers, principals, parents, and school committees. 41

42 Recommendation N ational policies propose the systemic reform in aspects: (1)The creation of the school environment, teachers quality, the curriculum reform, teaching learning activities, learning resources, higher stage assessment and other supporting aspects. (2)The teachers have to develop their competence in academic, professional, social, and also personal through teacher certification development. (3)The organization of pre-service and in-service training would be controlled and managed more professionally with due respect to the quality and meaningfulness of the goal of increasing the professionalism of teachers. 42

43 (4) Student learning strategy has to be focused on three main areas: summarizing, understanding, remembering, and controlling. (5) The availability of full-time and quality teachers, quality books, and access to internet needs to be improved. 22 (6) Student reading performance, the efforts to improve education quality should also be considered as an integral part of policies for improving household welfare Continue 43

44 G. GLOSSARY D 23 44

45 GLOSSARY The PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) was derived from the following three indices: highest occupational status of parents, highest educational level of parents in years of education, home possessions The index of family wealth is based on the students responses on whether they had the following at home: a room of their own, a link to the Internet, a dishwasher, a DVD player; and their responses on the number of cellular phones, televisions, computers, cars and the rooms with a bath or shower The index of home educational resources is based on the items measuring the existence of educational resources at home including a desk and a quiet place to study, computer, software, books, technical reference books, & dictionary; The index of cultural possessions is based on the students responses to whether they had the following at home: classic literature, books of poetry and works of art. The index of school size was derived by summing up the number of girls and boys at a school 24 45

46 GLOSSARY Continued … The index of teacher shortage was derived from items measuring school principals perceptions about qualified teachers The index of memorization was derived from the frequency with which students did the following when they were studying: i) try to memorize everything that is covered in the text; ii) try to memorize as many details as possible; iii) read the text so many times that they can recite it; and iv) read the text over and over again. The index of elaboration was derived from the frequency with which students did the following when they were studying: i) try to relate new information to prior knowledge acquired in other subjects; ii) figure out how the information might be useful outside school; iii) try to understand the material better by relating it to my own experiences; and iv) figure out how the text information fits in with what happens in real life. The index of control strategies was derived from students reports on how often they did the following statements: i) when I study, I start by figuring out what exactly I need to learn; ii) when I study, I check if I understand what I have read; iii) when I study, I try to figure out which concepts I still havent really understood; iv) when I study, I make sure that I remember the most important points in the text; and v) when I study and I dont understand something, I look for additional information to clarify this. 25 46

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