Presentation on theme: "The Management of Senior Civil Servants in Korea October 6, 2003 Pan S. Kim Professor of Public Administration Yonsei University, Korea"— Presentation transcript:
The Management of Senior Civil Servants in Korea October 6, 2003 Pan S. Kim Professor of Public Administration Yonsei University, Korea E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
1 Finance and Economy Education and Human Resources Development Foreign Affairs and Trade National Defense Culture and Tourism Commerce, Industry and Energy Health and Welfare Labor Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Unification Justice Government Administration & Home Affairs(MOGAHA) Science and Technology Agriculture and Forestry Information and Communication Environment Construction and Transportation Gender Equality Ministries
2 The Civil Service Commission & The Ministry of Government Administration & Home Affairs The Civil Service Commission (CSC) is a central agency to formulate personnel policy of the administration Composed of a chairperson and 4 commissioners * Established in May 24, 1999 The Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs (MOGAHA) is responsible for the implementation of personnel policies. Consolidation of HRM function?
3 Career vs. Non-career civil service - 1.7% of all civil servants are non-career services (as of December 31, 2001) Merit system vs. Spoils system Rank system vs. Job classification system - Generalist vs. Specialist Closed system vs. Open system Key feature of the Civil Service System
4 Career Service General Service: Grade1-9, 18 OG, 75 Series Specific Service: Judges, Prosecutors, Police, Educational,Diplomatic, Military Service, etc. Technical Service: simple, technical work (Grade 1- 10) Non-Career Service Political Service: Ministers, Vice-ministers, elected officials Excepted Service: No permanent job status; personal secretaries, etc. Contracted Service: professionals, scientists ….. Classification of National Civil Service
5 Total Number of Civil Servants 868,120 Total Population: 45,985,289 (in 2000) 53 : 1 Number of Civil Servants (1), as of December 31, 2001 The Legislative The Judicial The Executive National Local Other Constitutional Organs 3,211 (0.4%) 12, 817 (1.5%) 850,032(97.9%) 548,003(63.1%) 302,029(34.8%) 2,060 (0.2%)
6 Total:548,003 as of December 31, 2001 * Core workforce General Service (90,610) No. of National Civil Servants (The Executive) 103Political Service Excepted Service Specific Service Educational Service Police & Fire Service Foreign Service General Service (CORE) Technical Service Labor Service 2,347(0.4%) 389,936 (71.1%) 291,257(53.1%) 97,215(17.7%) 1,464 (0.3%) 90,610(16.5%) 63,556(11.9%) 1,390(0.3%) Contract Service 61
7 TotalGeneral Service Foreign Service Education al Service Police&F ire Judges& Prosecut- ors Technical Service Except- ed Service Labor Service Othe- rs Total (A) 843,329273,2841,372287,367118,2171,187147,4167,5964,4212,469 Female (B) 278,22564,07867168,7462,4544936,8313,5731,438794 Ratio (B/A) 33.0 23.44.9184.108.40.206.047.032.532.2 As of December 31, 2001 Total G1 to G5 G6~G9 & Research SubtotalG1G2G3G4G5 No. of total employees 273,28428,745723729936,22621,082244,539 Female(B) 64,0781,051021915787363,027 Ratio(B/A) 23.43.700.51.92.54.125.8 Yr 2001 No. of Women in the Executive (National+Local) No. of Women in the General Service (The Exec.)
8 Open/Competitive Entrance Examination Exam for Grade 5 (Senior Civil Service Exam) Exam for Grade 7 Exam for Grade 9 (Entry Level Exam) Non-competitive selection examination To prevent a backdoor entrance by political or personal patronage, the National Civil Service Act prescribes twelve cases in which non-competitive recruitment and selection is allowed. Methods of Recruitment
9 30%25%---G9 25%23%G7 20% 15%13%10% G5 200220012000199919981997Yr 1996 Affirmative Action Plans Quarter System for the Disabled Every ministry should retain more than 2% of disabled employees needs to be model employer To achieve this, 5% of new employees should be reserved annually for the disabled * People in Science & Technology; Local Colleges? Quarter System for Women Civil Servants
10 Promotion to Grades 4-8 Performance evaluation(50%) Seniority(length of service) (30%) Training results(20%) - Eligibility list for each class (same grade, same occupational series) is compiled twice a year Promotion to Grade 5 - Examination may be required in some ministries Promotion to G3(DG) or Higher Screened and recommended by the Promotion Review Committee/the Civil Service Commission Performance, Abilities and Seniority Ways of Promotion
11 General ServiceTechnical Service G5 and above : 60 G6 and below : 57 For those who have worked more than 20 years and wish to retire Paid Honorary Retired Allowance (Average of $ 20,000 in 1999) Allowed to be Honorary Promotion 50 – 57 Depending on job contents Retirement Age Honorary Retirement System
12 Pay = Base Salary + Allowances + Welfare Expenses Base Salary: 10 schedules by job categories. Allowances: Common Allowances (5 types) : Diligence allowance, Seniority Allowance ……… Special Allowances (35 types) : High Risk Allowance, special Task Allowance……… Extra Work Allowances (3 types)……… Other Allowances (5 types) : Performance Bonus, Allowance for childrens Educational Expenses…… Welfare Expenses: 6 types Pay Structure
14 Conduct Annual survey on the level of pay in the private sector (700 companies) Narrowing pay differentials year by year Introduce a contingency system by pay-adjusting allowances 5 years Plan to increase Pay level 2000 Yr 91% 95% 2001 Yr 97% 2002 Yr 98% 2003 Yr 100% 2004 Yr Pay level Compared to the private sector
15 Financial Sector put an end to governmental control and enhance autonomy of financial institutions 5 banks closed and 9 merged to larger ones ; 1 sold to foreign investors, 16 out of 30 merchant banks to be shut down Labor Market Labor, Management, Government - Tripartite Committee established (reform through democratic consensus) provide liquidity in the labor market through introduction of lay off and work dispatch system expand social safety net Corporate Sector revamp corporate governance major conglomerates to restructure and swap business lines and to stop financial cross-guarantees among subsidiaries Major Sectoral Reforms
16 Public Sector For a small, but efficient government For a small, but efficient government For an open and transparent government For an open and transparent government For a highly competitive government For a highly competitive government Toward an electronic-government Toward an electronic-government Restructure the government organizations Improve regulatory functions Enhance competition and efficiency in the government Civil Service reform…………….
17 Past: Closed system in the past, except for entry positions in grades 9, 7 and 5 (Vacancies have been filled mostly through internal promotion) Present: Open Post System (OPS) was established (20% of senior positions(142) are open to outside the government) -Experts from the private sector are expected to be employed - Employment conditions are based on contracts Major Civil Service Reform: Open Post System
18 Job Posting Vacant positions are posted publicly: media and government homepages(www.csc.go.kr) Any eligible candidates are encouraged to apply for the posted position. Applicants are screened and interviewed by the selection committee. The best qualified person will be selected.
19 Other Reform Measures Introduction of 360 degree evaluation - Most agencies use it for various purposes Promotion of Personnel Exchanges: - Central agency to central agency - National government to local authorities - Local authorities to local authorities - Public sector to private sector Employment of foreign experts by contract in the field of education, scientific research, etc.
20 PRP (I): Annual Merit Incremental Program - Application : Director General and Higher (Grades 1~3) - Components of pay fixed pay portion: minimum and maximum range for each grade, the amount of the pay for incumbents is calculated by their base monthly salary, quarterly bonus, and other allowances variable pay portion: 4 categories of pay rate is decided by performance appraisal based on MBO Performance pay rate: % Excellent: S grade(top 10%) 8% of performance standard amount in each grade % Outstanding: A grade(30%) 5% 3% Normal: B grade(50%) 3% 0% Unsatisfactory: C grade(10%) 0%
21 PRP (II): Performance Bonus Program - Application : Director(grade 3 or 4) level and lower - Form of payment : a lump-sum bonus - Bonus amount Bonuses are calculated by multiplying standard basic salary by the performance bonus rate - Performance Bonus Rate: Excellent (top 10%) 110% of standard basic salary Outstanding (30%) 80% Normal (50%) 40% Unsatisfactory(10%) 0%
22 New Agenda: Senior Management Motive to Reform Financial Crisis & IMF Bailout in 1997 Low World Competitiveness High Rigidity (Closed System) Lack of Leadership on the Top Lack of Competency & Responsiveness Necessity of Cultural Change: life-long job security and lack of performance management
23 Number of Senior Civil Servants Grade 1: Assistant Minister Level: 201 Grade 2: Direct-General Level: 545 Grade 3: Direct-General Level: 514 HAVE ALREADY OPENED UP 20 PERCENT FOR OPEN COMPETITION Excludes positions in the Office of the President, the Office of the Prime Minister, the National Intelligence Service, the Board of Audit and Inspection Excludes positions of the Specific Service (military, police, fire service, and prosecutors) and fixed term positions
24 Number of Positions for Open Competition 142 positions as of September 18, 2003 Filled 124 positions: 72: 28 89 positions (71.8%) by internal recruitment 35 positions (28.2%) by external recruitment (30 from the private sector; and 5 from other government agencies)
25 The Average OPS Characteristics Age: 50 years old Education: masters degree (46%) Doctoral degree (30%) Employment: Career civil servants (62%) Contact-based employment: 38% Period of Employment: 2.1 years (a term of no more than 5 years) Gender: Male dominated Women: only 4 persons (3.3%)
26 Positive Effects of OPS - openness & responsiveness - competition: global competitiveness - stimulation (cultural change): build up a performance culture - improvement of expertise: self-directed learning capacity building
27 Problems Could not recruit the best of the best: lack of attraction in terms of pay, benefits, and job security Possibility of Political Influence Low Representation of Women Fragmented HRM System: needs more comprehensive system for executives
28 Korean Government s Plan to Establish the SES/SCS 2001: The Civil Service Commission considered to establish it, but failed to pursue 2003: Establishment of the SES/SCS was included in the HRM Reform Roadmap Became part of HRM reform agendas President Roh (2003-2008) supports HRM reform
29 Current Situation: Too Fragmented The management of senior civil servants has been improved in the last few years, but still fragmented and under-developed The Civil Service Commission reviews their recruitment and promotion Each ministry lacks autonomous personnel authority MOGAHA handles MBO: Their pays are determined on the basis of the appraisal result of the management-by- objective (MBO) CSC deals with PRP: This years annual pay = previous years annual pay + performance-related pay +/- this years adjustment pay
30 Motives of Further Changes Inbreeding: internally promoted workforce; lack of nation-wide perspective; lack of competitiveness Fragmented management Lack of strategic & systematic HRD Poor performance management Weak reward system Needs to make the managers manage! (to be Change Agents!)
31 Issues for Further Development Scope of Senior Management? - Director-General or Higher or - Director or Higher * Whether to include: prosecutors, policemen, and diplomats Competencies: need to develop a new framework (personal qualities, leadership qualities & management competencies?) Separate system from the mid- and lower- level civil servants?
32 Issues for Further Development continued Recruitment? - by selection committees - by assessment centers - by entrance competitions Appointment? Job Security? - career - renewable term Performance Appraisal and Pay Scheme? - performance plan or agreement - performance-related remuneration pay Training (management & leadership development)?
33 The role of CSC: integrated management of senior civil servants? Personnel Autonomy: Each Ministers Interest vs. Integration of the CSC Mobility vs. Expertise Potential Monopolization of Elites Particularly from the Economy-Related Ministries Effects of the Spoils System Issues for Further Development continued
34 Implementation Plan Minimization of Political Influence & Internal Resistance Improvement of Performance Management and Provision of HRD Opportunities for SES/SCS Candidates Devolution of Personnel Authority to Each Ministry: Deregulation of Personnel Authority for the Minister and the Establishment of HRM Department in the Ministry Development of HRM Infrastructure: Job Analysis, Development of Competency Model, and Diversification of Recruitments…
35 Time Schedule 2003: Launched a Research Project for Establishment of SES/SCS 2003: Launched a Target Groups Job Analysis of the Central Government Early 2004: Development of the Basic Plan for Establishment of SES/SCS Early 2004: Policy Hearing for the Establishment of SEC/SCS Late 2004 or Early 2005: Revision of the National Civil Service Act