Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

By E.A.R. Ouano. Nature of Recyclable Trade Appreciation for the 3 Rs 3 Rs from the perspective of the developing countries Problems in trade negotiations.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "By E.A.R. Ouano. Nature of Recyclable Trade Appreciation for the 3 Rs 3 Rs from the perspective of the developing countries Problems in trade negotiations."— Presentation transcript:

1 by E.A.R. Ouano

2 Nature of Recyclable Trade Appreciation for the 3 Rs 3 Rs from the perspective of the developing countries Problems in trade negotiations involving recyclables Nature of Federal System Comparison of Trade and Federal System

3 Almost all countries today agree and have polices on the 3Rs ( Recover, Reuse and Recycles) All countries agree 3Rs uses less energy, materials, and generates less wastes All countries today realized that their economies generates wastes that could not be effective recycled, reused, and recovered within their own territorial boundaries

4 Reasons for the need to export recyclables Quantity generated is too small to commercially recover, reuse and recycle Segregation calls for manual labor which with high labor cost makes the process uneconomical– to developing countries Process calls for sophisticated technology that is difficult to operate and maintain with present level of sophistication- to developed countries

5 While a country may export recyclables it is hesitant to import recyclables Fear of undisclosed nature of the recyclables Fear of unwanted residues Fear of unwanted pollution from wastes generated during processing Fear of being seen as the global dumping ground for recyclables Fear of being exploited

6 Countries would like to limit recycling, reuse and recovery of wastes materials to wastes generated in its own territory and export those that it could not recover, reuse and recycle The more undeveloped and backward the country is, the stronger is the resistance to the trade of recyclables for reasons given in previous slides

7 Aside from economic and technological disadvantage, fear on the trade of recyclables is magnified by historical experience such as Colonial exploitation Unequal trade agreements 3R industries that were detrimental to health and environment Public distrust on the governing elite- governing elite may profit from recyclables at the expense of public welfare

8 Federalism is the union of autonomous or semi- autonomous states forming a State. The states surrender some of their political powers to the central government or the State, relying it for common good. Confederation is a loose alliance of states with the states retaining ultimate control of their internal policies, absolute control of their territories and citizens Federalism comes from Latin word fidere meaning to trust

9 In a federal system not all states are of equal level of social, and economic development Some states exports more recyclables to other states The relationships between the states are similar to those of the States in Regional and bilateral agreement Conflict resolution in confederates and federal system are normally more effective

10 Common Commercial and Trade Features of a Federal State states maintain control of local commerce, trade, and industry states compete with other states in attracting investments, production of goods and services The State facilitate trade and commerce between the states The State constitution normally prohibits states legislation that impedes trade and commerce between states

11 Federal system is relatively uncommon compared to unitary system Confederations are more uncommon

12 Environmental problems and concerns in multilateral and bilateral trade agreements are also found in the relations between states in a federal system Trade in recyclables is an environmental concern in federated states as well as in confederation

13 FederalConfederationRegional Agreements Main Legal Source ConstitutionTreaty ValidityPermanentPermanent to very long period Normally with expiration, subject to extension ChangesRatified by people Ratified by the people Negotiated executive and ratified by legislative CoverageVery broad Focused on trade

14 Conflict resolutionJudicial systemJudiciary or commission Variable depending on the treaty provisions ConstituencyCitizens free movement within the territory Free movement but control left on states Limited to territory of the country Socio-economic conditions Variations are lowVariations maybe high but common aspirations Variations high, aspirations maybe different Environmental laws and enforcement Variations are lowVariations are high but there is a common targeted level Variations are high and the treaty seldom address environmental concerns

15 Precedents in resolving environmental issue Very highhighVery low except when environment becomes a center of controversy Trusts in equitable resolutions of environmental issue Very highhighVery low especially if the difference in the standard of living is high Issues adjudicated other than trade and environment Very broad practically all aspects of society Very broadVery low-focus is on trade and recently environment International precedents in conflict resolution low WTO and its focused on trade

16 Conclusion Environment is a new dimension in trade negotiations especially in recyclables Environment represents a broader spectrum of distrust and equity issue especially when agreement involved societies with highly unequal economic and social level of development Federal and confederate system face the same trade problems but the conflict resolution mechanism is more matured Federal and confederate system resolve issues other than trade and environment- stakes are dispersed

17 Conclusion (continued) There is a need for strong public consultation at the earliest stage The trade agreements must have a conflict resolution mechanism that is seen as fair, permanent, transparent and possibly integrated with other social and economic concerns The conflict resolution mechanism should not be seen as biased towards trade


Download ppt "By E.A.R. Ouano. Nature of Recyclable Trade Appreciation for the 3 Rs 3 Rs from the perspective of the developing countries Problems in trade negotiations."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google