Presentation on theme: "Vladimir Papitashvili"— Presentation transcript:
1Vladimir Papitashvili Standing Scientific Group on Physical Sciences Report to SCAR Delegates October 3-9, 2004, Bremerhaven, GermanySCAR Scientific Research Programme ICESTAR: Interhemispheric Conjugacy Effects in Solar-Terrestrial and Aeronomy Research Linking Near-Earth Space to Polar RegionsAllan Weatherwax1, Kirsti Kauristie2, Maurizio Candidi3, and ICESTAR Planning Group1Siena College, New York, U.S.A.2Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland3CNR, Roma, ItalyVladimir Papitashvili(Former Leader of the ICESTAR Planning Group)Space Physics Research LaboratoryUniversity of Michigan, U.S.A.
2SCAR-supported ICESTAR Workshop Institut Oceanologique, Villefranche sur mer,France, April 22-23, 2004(25 attendees)
3Science and Implementation Plan Expected duration: 2005 – 2009 SCAR Scientific Research Programme ICESTAR: Interhemispheric Conjugacy Effects in Solar-Terrestrial and Aeronomy ResearchAt the programme-planning Workshop, we outlined scientific backgrounds, goals, objectives, and potential implementation plans for establishing under the auspices of SCAR a five-year international scientific research programme for coordinated bi-polar research in the fields of STP and polar aeronomyScience and Implementation PlanExpected duration:2005 – 2009Expected SCAR funding:US $75,000Endorsed by SCAR’s Standing Scientific Group on Physical SciencesJuly 28, 2004/icestar/icestar.html
4Vision of SCAR : (First SCAR Long-term Strategic Plan .” point 2.2) SCAR Scientific Research Programme ICESTAR: Interhemispheric Conjugacy Effects in Solar-Terrestrial and Aeronomy Research (major advances in science significantly enhanced by this programme)ICESTAR Main Goals:To identify and quantify mechanisms that control interhemi-spheric regional differences and/or commonalities in the electrodynamics of the Earth's magnetosphere – iono-sphere system and aeronomy of the upper atmosphere over the Arctic and AntarcticandTo develop a “virtual data portal” linking together a large number of globally distributed geophysical databases, including both data serving applications and visualization tools; this will enable a systems view of the polar upper atmosphere and geospaceChallenge:Understand the geospace environment in the polar regions and its dynamical response to external forcing from solar activityVision of SCAR : (First SCAR Long-term Strategic Plan .” point 2.2)“ ...exploration of the Antarctic region through scientific research and international cooperation .... to understand the nature of the region and its processes, the role of Antarctica in the Earth System, .... and to exploit the unique location of Antarctica for the scientific study of space weather, Sun-Earth interactions .. “This is accomplished by ICESTAR through the investigation of the fundamental physical phenomena that determine the evolution of space weather, and the capability to forecast. ICESTAR is closely connected with the CAWSES program of SCOSTEP, the ILWS program of the world space agencies, and links to the IHY program.
5Links to international programmes outside Antarctica ICESTAR: the SCAR program to identify the Antarctic contribution to IPY4 in the field of Solar-Terrestrial physicsLinks to international programmes outside Antarctica(scientists from all over the world participate in these programs; ICESTAR will enhance the visibility of Antarctic research for all those countries, within the community)The International Heliophysical YearCAWSESClimate and Weather of the Sun-Earth SystemA new SCOSTEP Program forThe International Living With a Star program
6Brief Outline (major advances, why SCAR? Why now?) The ICESTAR Programme for the first time will focus on the quantification of various mechanisms that control the bi-polar (global and regional) differences and commonalities in the Earth’s magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes, and the corresponding upper atmospheric phenomena over both the Northern and Southern polar regions, with enhanced instrumentation, and superior coverage in AntarcticaThese bi-polar (interhemispherically conjugate) phenomena might be intrinsic to the polar ionosphere/upper atmosphere, or might be caused by the long-term and/or abrupt changes in the near-Earth electromagnetic environment forced by the solar activity (i.e., geomagnetic storms and substorms)It is suggested that during IPY4 (no delay!) SCAR will lead this new initiative in close collaboration with the countries which are involved in the Arctic research, and possibly with the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC)
7What are we looking for?Phenomena originate on the Sun: hot plasma is emitted, the solar wind, particles, protons and electrons mainly, which form clouds of plasma that pervade the Solar System. At times relavitistic particles, at much higher energies are emitted as well (notice the fast tracks detected by the instrument CCD).This plasma hits the Earth, and the interaction is the subject of solar-terrestrial physics studies.SOHO LASCO images
8interaction between the natural environment and human society SPACE WEATHER…to observe, study and forecast the effects of solar phenomena which…. ..may endanger life in space and performance of space and terrestrial systems…… is a part of solar terrestrial and space physics.Intense flux of high energy electrons damages commercial satellites at synchronous orbitStrong magnetic field variations couple inductively to long power lines and generate intense electric currents. Damage to system determines black-outs
9Outreach: solar-terrestrial physics is present in the media, and will be during IPY4 An image taken by a SOHO instrument is featured on the cover of the July issue of National Geographic magazine. This is the dramatic introduction to a 32-page story on developments in solar science over the last decade called "The Sun: Living with a Stormy Star." The article features numerous images from SOHO and TRACEPicture credits: SOHO/EIT (ESA & NASA) Instrument: EIT (Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope)
10The Earth magnetic field connects strongly the two hemispheres; strict symmetry is to be expected if the magnetosphere determines processes; deviations from symmetry may be due to asymmetries in the ionospheric structure in the two hemispheresAntarctica is a continent surrounded by oceans, and allows dense arrays of instruments all over the whole polar cap, where the effects of solar terrestrial physics phenomena are most prominentV = 450 km/sN = 7 cm-3B = 5 nTVeniamo dunque al caso specifico dell’int. fra vento solare e magnetosfera. Quando il vento solare arriva all’altezza dell’orbita terrestre ha una velocità, in media di …, una densità di …, e porta con sé un campo magnetico di … .In prossimità della Terra la presenza del campo geomagnetico deflette il flusso del vento solare: il tenue plasma magnetosferico permeato dall’intenso campo geomagnetico ed il più denso ventosolare permeato dal campo magnetico interplanetario non possono compenetrarsi: i due plasmi rimango separati da una superficie: la magnetopausa terrestre che non è altro che uno strato di corrente attraverso il quale si realizza il cambiamento di topologia del campo magnetico.Il vento solare distorce la topologia del campo geomagnetico, che in assenza del vento solare sarebbe molto simile a quella di un dipolo.D’altra parte il vento solare si trova a dover fluire intorno alla magnetopausa: poiché la sua velocità è supersonica si genera un’onda d’urto attraverso la quale il vento solare viene frenato e gran parte dell’energia cinetica del vento solare viene trasformata in energia termica.La regione fra l’onda d’urto e la magnetopausa viene chiamata regione di transizione (magnetosheath) ed è caratterizzata da una densita più alta di quella del vento solare e anche da un campo magnetico più intenso.La magnetopausa dunque può essere pensata come la superficie che separa la magnetosfera terrestre, regione in cui è confinato il campo geomagnetico e il vento solare.Il vento solare: esso non può attraversare tale superficie e giungere a terra. Due regioni eccezionali riguardo a ciò sono le cuspidi, che per la particolare topologia del campo magnetico, permettono un più facile accesso al vento solare. Sono regioni ancora poco esplorate e sede di processi ancora sconosciuti.Posizione del naso della magnetopausa:Press. Dinamica=kpressione termica=2Bdipolo/2muzero
11-E•J 0JBJBVediamo ora quali sono le conseguenze su grande scala di questo modello.IMF e campo geom. si riconnettono al punto subsolare la curvatura del campo magnetico in questo punto è tale da accelerare il plasma convertendo energia magnetica in energia cinetica. Poiche al di fuori della regione di diffusione vale la MHD plasma e campo si muovono insieme la linea appena riconnessa tende a distendersi mentre è trascinata dal vento solare in direzione della coda geomagnetica.Si ha anche che in condizioni stazionarie le linee di campo sono equipotenziali e il campo E=UxB verrà trasferito anch alla polar cap dove darà origine a un moto in direzione antisolare del plasma ionosferico. I tubi di flusso si accumulerranno dunque nella coda geomagnetica dove un altro processo di riconnessione darà origin ad una linea di campo molto tirata che tenderà a tornare verso Terra chiudendo il ciclo.The instantaneous value of the Interplanetary magnetic Field (IMF), and its polarity determine the strength of the interaction and move the interaction point along the surface of the magnetopause; asymmetries between hemispheres may followRadars allow studies of dynamics, irrespective of day or night conditions
12The dynamics of the auroral formations depends on the polarity of the IMF, and is influenced by ionospheric dynamics and conditions
13Why are bipolar studies essential? Figure 4. The relative displacement of the onset locations (squares) and auroral features (diamonds) in the two hemispheres versus IMF measured by Wind (black) and ACE (grey). The triangle is the displacement (40 min at 59 magnetic latitude) during the 1 November 2001 substorm reported by Frank and Sigwarth . (a) DMLT versus qC (clock angle). (b) Dkm versus qC. (c) DMLT versus By. (d) Clock angle definition.JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 109, N. Østgaard, et al.
14Why do we need interhemispheric studies? All-sky camera images of conjugate auroraAll-sky camera images of non-conjugate auroraSuch observations have been possible with all-sky cameras during the short times when both auroral regions in the two hemispheres are in the darkModern instrumentation, like the large arrays of radars will allow unconstrained observations. The SuperDARN array in Antarctica will be a first for SCAR (no such coverage will be possible in the arctic for IPY4)Why now?Why SCAR?Outreach
15Zhong Shan South Pole Dome C Two new radars to be installed at Dome-C to provide coverage over areas where access from equatorward land is not possible; this option is being studied by IFSI and LPCE.There is a proposal to NSF for South Pole and China is considering the possibility to install a radar at Zhong Shan.Dome C
16ICESTAR: Outstanding Questions major advances in science that will be enhanced by this programmeHow the states of Earth's magneto- sphere differ qualitatively and quanti-tatively under extreme, moderate, and quiet solar wind conditions?What is common and what is different in the solar-terrestrial and aeronomi-cal phenomena observed over both the Arctic and Antarctic?Does the auroral activity during sub-storms arise from instabilities in the ionosphere or does this aurora simply mirror plasma motions in the outer magnetosphere?To what extent are the ionized and neutral high-latitude upper atmo-spheric regions affected by mecha-nical and electrodynamic inputs from the lower atmosphere?How does the global electric circuit affect the ionosphere state? How is this circuit closed between the low and high latitudes?Thus, it is important and timely to act now to study the polar regions in their interhemispheric context from observations in space and over the Arctic and Antarctic
17Rationale for the ICESTAR Scientific Research Programme (why now?) Emergence of New Datasets. The volume of experimental data have been increasing significantly in recent years. It is the right time to begin to create tools to examine the entire system as a whole utilizing all of the geospace data.Emergence of Grid technology. The Grid is just starting to be defined, and has yet to find a real niche. The seamless sharing of data is one possibility, and the creation of visualization tools that can utilize globally distributed datasets will push the limits of the current technologies.Enable Easy Access to Distributed Data. Many research groups are creating data assimilation tools which require the use of as many data sources as possible. The ICESTAR data portal will enable these developments to grow.Uniqueness of Antarctica. The Antarctic continent offers a unique vantage point for examining the near-earth space, spanning from the top of the troposphere, through the stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and ionosphere, and into the magnetosphere.Focused Science. ICESTAR is intended to both enable and to conduct focused scientific research on the upper atmosphere above the Antarctic and how that region of space ties in with the global system.
18SCAR Scientific Research Programme ICESTAR: Interhemispheric Conjugacy Effects in Solar-Terrestrial and Aeronomy ResearchICESTAR will have four Thematic Action Groups (TAGs) specifically focusing on:Quantifying and understanding the similarities and differences between the Northern and Southern polar upper atmospheresQuantifying the atmospheric consequences of the global electric circuit and further understanding the electric circuit in the middle atmosphereQuantifying the dynamics of the inner magnetospheric particles and fields and the consequences of those dynamics on the polar atmosphereCreating a data portal that will integrate all of the polar data sets and modeling results; this data portal will enable the research to be conducted by the other TAGs
19ICESTAR DeliverablesICESTAR will deliver a wide variety of products ranging from a better scientific understanding of the polar atmosphere to a Web-based “virtual” data collection system:A Web-based data portal that will enable scientists to create a systems view of the polar regionsQuantification of seasonal differences in the polar ionospheric conductance and its effects on magnetospheric, ionospheric, and thermospheric dynamicsConstrains on the models based on conjugate remote sensing of inner magnetospheric dynamicsCharacterization of the basic state of the polar middle atmosphereQuantification of the AC and DC global atmospheric circuit and its effects on the ionospheric stateCharacterization of the spatial and temporal properties of mesoscale convection in the ionosphere
20ICESTAR Milestones2005–2006Start of the ICESTAR Programme: Collect information and coordinate observations at the existing instrumental arrays in the Arctic and Antarctic aiming specifically at interhemispheric studies, including global development of the magnetic storms and substorms over the polar regions; promote the deployment of new instruments where current gaps exist.2007–2008Main Phase (coincides with IPY): Develop time-dependent models of the global electric circuits controlled by external drivers; couple these models with the potential input from atmospheric processes including global thunderstorms.2009Closure or Renewal Phase: Consider termination or extension of the ICESTAR programme based on its progress and accomplishments.
21ICESTAR Steering Committee (Energy and Experience) SCAR Scientific Research Programme ICESTAR: Interhemispheric Conjugacy Effects in Solar-Terrestrial and Aeronomy ResearchICESTAR Steering Committee(Energy and Experience)Chairman: Allan Weatherwax U.S.A Ph.DCo-Chairwoman: Kirsti Kauristie Finland Ph.DTAG A Leader: Martin Fullekrug U.K Ph.DTAG B Leader: Eftyhia Zesta U.S.A. Ph.DTAG C Co Nikolai Østgaard Norway Ph.DLeaders: Scott Palo U.S.A Ph.DTAG D Leader: Aaron Ridley U.S.A. Ph.DLead Member: Brian Fraser AustraliaLead Member: Ruiyuan Liu P. R. ChinaLead Member: Natsuo Sato JapanSSG/PS Deputy Chair, ex officio: Maurizio Candidi (Italy)
22ICESTAR: Summary and Thrust The greatest challenge facing environmental science and policy is understanding the interactions between, and collective behavior of, the many component parts of the Earth system, including the interaction between the natural environment and human society.Near-Earth space (geospace) is an integral part of the Earth system, providing the material link between the Sun and Earth, primarily through the polar regions, and posing a potential hazard to space-borne and ground based technology on which Society is increasingly dependent.The Initial Outline Science Plan for the International Polar Year 2007–2008, issued by the ICSU’s IPY Planning Group in April 2004 (www.ipy.org), proposes five main science themes to address.Although the IPY main focus will be to determine the present environ-mental status of the polar regions and their connections to the potential global climate changes, its Fifth Theme calls for:“To use the unique vantage point of the polar regions to develop and enhance observatories studying the Earth’s inner core, the Earth’s magnetic field, geospace, the Sun and beyond.”This is a major thrust of the proposed ICESTAR Programme.
23Spring 2005 ($10,000) Data portal specification meeting focusing on: SCAR Scientific Research Programme ICESTAR: Interhemispheric Conjugacy Effects in Solar-Terrestrial and Aeronomy ResearchBudget cycle 2004–2006: $40,000Spring 2005 ($10,000) Data portal specification meeting focusing on:• Identification and metadata description of all available Antarctic data • Identification of all Web sites making data and metadata available• Identification of available value-added products on-line and off-line• Prioritization of data and products based on science goalsYear 2005 ($10,000) Creation of ICESTAR metadata catalogue on the ICESTAR Web portalSummer 2006 ($10,000) ICESTAR Data Portal meeting, XXIX SCAR:• Announcement to SCAR science community of metadata catalogue• Strategy for linking existing on-line sites together and providing on-line services for all known geospace data and productsYear 2006 ($10,000) Development of the ICESTAR Data Portal
24SCAR Scientific Research Programme ICESTAR: Interhemispheric Conjugacy Effects in Solar-Terrestrial and Aeronomy ResearchBudget cycle 2006–2008: $35,000Spring 2007 ($15,000) ICESTAR Science Community Workshop:• Workshop centered on using ICESTAR metadata and the data portal to tackle selected problems/event studies in TAG A-C science• Note this will be good community project for the IPY-4Summer 2008 ($10,000) ICESTAR Special Session, XXX SCAR:• Presentation of full ICESTAR data portal capabilities and science outputs from the community workshopSummer 2009 ($10,000) ICESTAR “Forward Look” Workshop:• Review of ICESTAR achievements and way forwardThus, the total requested SCAR funding for the proposed ICESTAR Programme is U.S. $75,000 for 5 years
25Thank you for your attention SCAR Scientific Research Programme ICESTAR: Interhemispheric Conjugacy Effects in Solar-Terrestrial and Aeronomy Research Linking Near-Earth Space to Polar RegionsThank you for your attention