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1 SWWT Initiatives - Long term monitoring of Sun-Earth Interactions F. Lefeuvre + contributions from 16 groups or individual SWWT members.

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Presentation on theme: "1 SWWT Initiatives - Long term monitoring of Sun-Earth Interactions F. Lefeuvre + contributions from 16 groups or individual SWWT members."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 SWWT Initiatives - Long term monitoring of Sun-Earth Interactions F. Lefeuvre + contributions from 16 groups or individual SWWT members

2 2CONTEXTE SW activities rely on long term ground-based and space - based observations SW activities rely on long term ground-based and space - based observations Long term monitoring of the geospace (solar corona, solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, atmosphere) is needed: Long term monitoring of the geospace (solar corona, solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, atmosphere) is needed: - to understand physical mechanisms driving Solar – Earth interactions - to identify time variations in the Earth environment (space environment included) - to provide SW services (forecast and specifications) Part of the observations are known to be temporary (e.g. SOHO) Part of the observations are known to be temporary (e.g. SOHO) Other observations, continuously available since many years e.g. magnetometers or ionosondes) may be stopped due to changes in the priorities of National Agencies Other observations, continuously available since many years e.g. magnetometers or ionosondes) may be stopped due to changes in the priorities of National Agencies

3 3 The dual use of instruments (science and operational activities), which should be an advantage, may be viewed as a drawback The dual use of instruments (science and operational activities), which should be an advantage, may be viewed as a drawback SWWT action in progress : investigate the possibility of creating a european coordination structure (like ERANET) between all national and international agencies involved (or to be involved) in long term monitoring (long term measurements, access to distributed data sets with large data volume, model development ). SWWT action in progress : investigate the possibility of creating a european coordination structure (like ERANET) between all national and international agencies involved (or to be involved) in long term monitoring (long term measurements, access to distributed data sets with large data volume, model development ). An ERA-NET (e.g. ASTRONET) does not provide new funds but allows to agree on common strategies and common support of programmes. Three splinter meetings have been organized to identify tasks for an ERANET-like structure. - Paris meeting, elaboration of a questionnaires sent to all SWWT members - Toulouse and RAL meetings, discussion on elements of the questionnaire. The work is not completed. The work is not completed.

4 4 2. OUTPUTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE - an example : the networks of g.b. magnetometers - synthesis

5 5 2.a The ground-based magnetometers What must be monitored What must be monitored The time and space variations of the Earth magnetic field for time periods ranging from few minutes to few decades in order to: - Earth magnetism, - dynamics of the auroral/polar regions, - determine the ionospheric current during SW storms, - produce geomagnetic indices and geomagnetic field models, - determine the ionospheric current during SW storms, - enable the calculation and estimation of the induced geoelectric field and of the resulting GICs in technological systems Users are research institutes and industrial companies

6 6 Present status, National and European funding Present status, National and European funding - about 100 digital observatories (funded by National Agencies) are gathered in the frame of the INTERMAGNET * network - it is completed by more or less temporary magnetometers (funded by National Agencies) run by other networks like IMAGE ** - the worlwide coordination of magnetic observatories is made in the frame of an ad-hoc IAGA working group * INTERMAGNET, consortium led by an executive board (4 scientists), the technical issues and standards are under the responsabilty of an operating committee (14 scientists) ** IMAGE, informal coalition between 10 European research institutes who maintain magnetometers in northern Europe

7 7 What are the gaps in the measurements and the lack of coordination What are the gaps in the measurements and the lack of coordination - no gap in stations for Europe (planetary scale, regional scale ?) - coordination via IAGA (+ an internal coordination system for INTERMAGNET) Benefit of a cooperation between National and European organisms Benefit of a cooperation between National and European organisms - Cooperation allows reduction of costs and high level technological infrastructure

8 8 2.b Synthesis

9 9 Quantities to monitor Equipments Present driver Funding agencies Interest of a coordination time and space Earth B field variations (Earth magnetism,dynam. Aur./polar regions) space and g.b. magnetom. Science (ind. users) National - maintain ( upgrade) technical performances Cosmic ray fluxes and int. (effects on the Earth environ t ) g.b. neutron and muon monitors Science (ind. users) NationalInternat. - have data in line and archived The structure of the ionosphere ionosondesApplication (sci. users) NationalEU** - secure the funding - maintain ( upgrade) technical performances TEC variations Space and g.b. GNSS receivers Application* (Sci. develop) (Sci. develop t )NationalESA** - Secure the funding * Creation of an United Nation International Committee for Global Navigation System (see UNOOSA + ICG)

10 10 Quantities to monitor Equipments Present driver Funding agencies Interest of a coordination High latitude ionosphere convection, conduction, (modelling) Super –DARN EISCATScience Intern. associations define a medium and long term strategy for long term monitoring Scintillations(modelling)receiversScience? Applic.* ? NationalInternat. data exchange Solar activity g.b. (space ?) MagnetographsCoronographs H- α imagers Science (Ind. Users) NationalInternat. define a medium and long term strategy for g.b. and space measurements Solar energy flux (understanding irradiance variations, therm – ionosph. Res.) Space EUV/UV detectors g.b. F10.7 cm measurements (for proxy) Science (Ind. Users) TIGER SCOSTEP programme ? NationalInternat. - secure the continuity of F 10.7 cm measurements - define a strategy (ISS?)

11 11 Quantities to monitor Equipments Present driver Funding agencies Interest of a coordination Coronal hole obs. (for CME prediction and detection) EUV soft x-ray images ScienceNationalInternat. define a medium and long term strategy for long term monitoring Solar radio flux, signature of CMEs, shocks, SEP,.. Multi – frequency radiotelescopes Science (Ind. Users?) NationalInternat. define a medium and long term strategy for long term monitoring IMF and solar wind parameters at L1 Plasma and wave measurements on-board satellites Use by science as well as by application Internat. Define a European strategy

12 12 General situation for Space – based measurements Long term measurements (a) solar corona and solar wind (b) radiations Present situation - (a) supposed to be taken into account by ESA/Sci. - (b) is the mission of the ESA project of Tech network of Centers Problems - (b) needs (a) - (b) has a scientific part (ILWS)

13 13 3. INTEREST OF AN INTER-AGENCIES COORDINATION STRUCTURE Ground-based measurements - secure the funding - optimize the space, time and frequency coverage - maintain and improve the technical performances - define strategies for long term monitoring measurement (e.g. support of proposals for new networks) International equipments - define European medium and long terms strategies Space – based measurements - facilitate dual use of satellites and ISS (Science, Earth Observation and technical satellite, etc.) or even dual satellites

14 14 Access to distributed data sets with large data volume ● get EU supports for data exchanges, archiving, Virtual Observatories (in particular via upstream actions) Model development ● prioritize models to be developed (and so supported) ● examine the possibility of developing European global models Access to distributed data sets with large data volume ● get EU supports for data exchanges, archiving, Virtual Observatories (in particular via upstream actions) Model development ● prioritize models to be developed (and so supported) ● examine the possibility of developing European global models

15 15 4. CONCLUSION long term monitoring is essential for scientific as well as operational SW activities. Approaches may-be different for ground-based measurements and for space based measurements. Access to data and model developments are complementary problems. long term monitoring is essential for scientific as well as operational SW activities. Approaches may-be different for ground-based measurements and for space based measurements. Access to data and model developments are complementary problems. Ground based measurements Ground based measurements - National scientific agencies, which don’t like long time long term commitments, must be convinced about the scientific objectives to fund equipments - Recommendations from Scientific Unions and/or Interdisciplinary Bodies may help to convince Scientific Unions - IHY may give an opportunity to start new long term monitoring (as an example : The monitoring of solar radio flux, signature of CMEs, shocks, SEP,... from a network of multi-frequency radio telescopes) - question: what about the user needs?

16 16 Space – based measurements - adapted strategies must be defined for long term monitoring from space - coordination is needed between ESA departments between ESA and National Space agencies with other European Space entities (EUMETSAT)

17 17 In all cases, a coordination between all partners would be very useful In all cases, a coordination between all partners would be very useful An ERA-NET could be a solution. This proposal has first to be tested with ASTRONET An ERA-NET could be a solution. This proposal has first to be tested with ASTRONET


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