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Doc.: IEEE 802. 15-09-0291-00-004g Submission 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 1 Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal.

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Presentation on theme: "Doc.: IEEE 802. 15-09-0291-00-004g Submission 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 1 Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal."— Presentation transcript:

1 doc.: IEEE g Submission 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 1 Project: IEEE P Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Submission Title: Its all about future proofing Date Submitted: 1 May, 2009 Source: Emmanuel Monnerie Company: Landis+Gyr Address: Mill Creek Avenue, Alpharetta, GA USA Voice: , emmanuel. monnerie [at] landisgyr.com Re: IEEE Task Group 4g Call for Proposals (CFP) on 22 January, 2009 Abstract:This presentation describes a protocol based on narrow band OFDM, combined with slow frequency hopping Purpose: Proposal for consideration by the TG4g Notice:This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P It is offered as a basis for discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein. Release:The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE and may be made publicly available by P

2 doc.: IEEE g Submission 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 2 Its all about future proofing Smart meters can run from $100 to $250 apiece by the time you factor in installation costs Business Week, March 31, 2009 Regulators, vendors, utility executives, and ratepayers have a vested interest in future-proofing AMI implementations to avoid stranded costs of the old meter assets, additional costs for new assets, and costly, time-consuming, and difficult system reengineering and integration. Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, December 2008

3 doc.: IEEE g Submission Narrow Band OFDM Proposition Operation in all license free bands defined in (780MHz, 868MHz, 915 MHz, 950MHz, 2.4GHz,…) 64 orthogonal tones (48 effective + 4 pilots + 12 guard tones) separated by 1.5kHz Total signal bandwidth <100KHz Slow frequency hopping controlled by MAC layer Channel map covering the whole band, with 100kHz spacing (up to 260 channels in the US 915MHz ISM band) Data Modulation: BPSK, QPSK,16-QAM, 64-QAM Reed Solomon [15,9] option. Data Rates: (without coding) 67kbps, 136kbps, 272kbps, 408kbps, (with coding) 40kbps, 82kbps, 163 kbps, 245kbps 42us cyclic prefix (1/16 of FFT cycle time) 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 3

4 doc.: IEEE g Submission Channel Characteristics Field measurements in urban environment have shown that the signal from a meter to a near by pole top radio can easily reach over 1us, even in line of sight and short distance conditions (<150m) TG4g Document # g Urban areas typically have rms delay spreads on the order of 2-3 us and continuous multipath power out to excess delays of 5 us. In hilly residential areas and in open areas within a city, root mean square (rms) delay spreads are slightly larger, typically having values of 5-7 us. 900 MHz multipath propagation measurements for US digital cellular radiotelephone (Rappaport, T.S.; Seidel, S.Y.; Singh, R.). Global Telecommunications Conference, 1989, and Exhibition. Communications Technology for the 1990s and Beyond. GLOBECOM89., IEEE 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 4

5 doc.: IEEE g Submission A simple modulation scheme without channel equalization is strongly affected by multipath fading 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 5 100kbps FSK in different multipath channels

6 doc.: IEEE g Submission OFDM systems are robust against most delay spreads 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 6 100kbps OFDM in Multipath Channel Channel equalization is simple with OFDM The performance loss caused by the cyclic prefix is largely compensated by the removal of the Inter Symbol Interference

7 doc.: IEEE g Submission Multi-path mitigation at different levels Long Cyclic Prefix before each OFDM symbol The ISI is removed and the signal is coherent during the remaining symbol duration. Frequency Hopping, providing channel diversity Combined with mesh networking, providing alternate paths for the worst cases 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 7 42us667us

8 doc.: IEEE g Submission Interference mitigation Data spread among multiple narrow tones, combined with Reed Solomon: narrow jammers can be tolerated, even within the signal bandwidth. Frequency Hopping among a large number of channels, improving jamming immunity. 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 8

9 doc.: IEEE g Submission Packet Success Rate and System Latency In a mesh network, it is important to maximize the link performance because it impacts directly the system latency and the amount of energy spent. 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 9

10 doc.: IEEE g Submission Link Margin versus Data Rate Typically: low data rate OFDM (<100 kbps) addresses long range, rural applications. Medium data rate OFDM (around 100kbps) address most of utilities deployments in suburban and urban areas. Higher data rate (100 kbps to 400kbps) for the network devices with pole top antennas. Practically: each radio decides automatically which link margin is required, and thus the appropriate data rate 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 10

11 doc.: IEEE g Submission More channels for the SUN The total OFDM signal bandwidth remain the same at 100kHz regardless of data rate. 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 11

12 doc.: IEEE g Submission Channel Count and Collision Rate 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 12 Systems with higher channel count outperform the other systems Links involving a Network Device are affected more heavily by collisions than meter-to-meter links

13 doc.: IEEE g Submission An OFDM modem… in a meter? OFDM modems are already widely implemented in PLC-based Smart Meters EDF is currently rolling out 35 millions residential meters with an OFDM modem inside An FFT 64 channels at 100k samples per seconds can be implemented in a small silicon space or in a low cost DSP ADC/DAC operating a few 100s of kSamples/sec are low cost and low power. 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 13

14 doc.: IEEE g Submission How about power consumption? Low energy radio –The SUN radio is a low-duty cycle device. –Smart Meters spend 99% of the time listening. –The power consumption of a receiver is roughly proportional to its bandwidth. A radio with a 100kHz bandwidth consumes roughly 3 time less energy than a radio with a 300kHz bandwidth. –During transmit mode, Crest Factor Reduction techniques can be applied to reduce the PAPR of the OFDM signal. Signal Clipping is a simple and valid CFR technique for BPSK. Low energy system –Robust and reliable PHY lowers the need for network devices in the system (repeaters or routers) –Robust and reliable PHY lowers the need to re-transmit or re-route packets 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 14

15 doc.: IEEE g Submission OFDM preambles 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 15 SP1SP2…SP 10 CP Long Preamble – 1 Long Preamble -2

16 doc.: IEEE g Submission Example of OFDM Preamble detector Rx Samples If 1, then Packet Found! where, C = A = Low energy design using a small logic and running at a few 100s of kHz The bigger DSP functions (FFT, decoder) are remaining inactive during the preamble detection 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 16 A C /2 >? Z -8

17 doc.: IEEE g Submission So, again, what are the benefits of a narrow band OFDM protocol? More robust communication protocol. Spectrally efficient modulation Proven and widely used technology Better fit for most international regulations Broader range of applications for the Utilities Scalability and flexibility Not more costly than comparable solutions Not more power hungry than comparable solutions 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 17

18 doc.: IEEE g Submission Benefits for the Utilities More reliable communication network System with low energy footprint Improved network orthogonality thanks to a high number of channels Lower system latency More frequent and more accurate metering data Increased HAN traffic through the SUN. More room for security overhead Future proof and flexible solution: most of the radio design can be implemented in firmware, allowing PHY upgrade over the air. 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 18

19 doc.: IEEE g Submission Worldwide Compatibility A 100kHz bandwidth makes the solution compatible for most regions (USA, Europe, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand,…). When required, the MAC layer can skip channels to meet some specific requirements. Most regions have a very limited license free space. 100 kHz channels are allowing a higher number of channels for improved network collocation and network coexistence. 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 19

20 doc.: IEEE g Submission Conclusion Narrow band OFDM excels in meeting the goals of the TG4g PAR, more particularly: Achieve the optimal energy efficient link margin given the environmental conditions encountered in Smart Metering deployments. Data rate of at least 40 kbits per second but not more than 1000 kbits per second The Wireless Smart Metering Utility Network requirement is thus for the largest number of orthogonal traffic carrying channels allowed per local regulations consistent with the simultaneous requirement to provide at least 40kbps the requirements of the Wireless Smart Metering Utility Network further intensify the need for maximum range as many devices are located sub- optimally. An example is electricity meters located in highly obstructed, high multipath locations with inflexible antenna orientation 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 20

21 doc.: IEEE g Submission Q & A 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 21

22 doc.: IEEE g Submission Thank you! 1 May, 2009 Emmanuel Monnerie, Landis+GyrSlide 22


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