2 Chapter Outline Strategic orientations of global companies Ethnocentric orientationPolycentric orientationRegioncentric orientationGeocentric orientationThe globalization imperative vs. pressures for regional and national responsiveness
3 Chapter Outline (2) Doing business around the world China Russia India FrancePoland
4 Ethnocentric Strategic Orientation The values and interests of the parent company guide strategic decisions
5 Ethnocentric Strategic Orientation (2) Mission is profitability.Top down decision making – major decisions are made at headquartersGlobal strategy, determined at headquarters.Global product (based on needs of home country)Home country managers hold key positions everywhere. Profits from subsidiaries are repatriated (go back) to corporate headquartersHeadquarters makes decisions about budgets, profit targets, and capital investment for the subsidiaries.
6 Polycentric Strategic Orientation Strategic decisions are tailored to suit the cultures of the countries where the company operates.
7 Polycentric Strategic Orientation (2) Mission is public acceptance (legitimacy)Subsidiaries set their own strategic objectives.Subsidiaries use national responsiveness strategies (based on local needs).Products are based on host country needs.Most profits are retained by the subsidiary.Subsidiary makes decisions about its budget and capital investment.Local citizens are trained for key positions.
8 Regioncentric Strategic Orientation The firm tries to balance its own interests with the interests of its subsidiaries on a regional basis.
9 Regioncentric Strategic Orientation (2) Mission is profitability and public acceptance.Strategy is based on regional integration and national responsiveness.Strategic objectives are negotiated between regional headquarters and subsidiaries.Regional product, often with local adaptationsMost profits are retained in the region.Capital investment decisions are made on a regional basis.Managers are trained for key positions anywhere in the region.
10 Geocentric Strategic Orientation The company uses a global approach to decision making.
11 Geocentric Strategic Orientation (2) Mission is profitability and public acceptance.Strategy is global integration and national responsiveness.Strategic objectives are negotiated among subsidiaries, regions, and headquarters.Global product, with local variations
12 Geocentric Strategic Orientation (3) Headquarters redistributes profits among subsidiaries to meet capital investment and budget needs.The best managers are developed for key positions anywhere in the world.Combines best features of geocentric and polycentric strategies.Requires more coordination and communication than other strategies.
13 Globalization Imperative The "globalization imperative" is a belief that one worldwide approach to doing business is the key to both efficiency and effectiveness.In response to pressures for national and regional responsiveness, a growing number of firms have switched to regioncentric or geocentric strategies.
14 Pressures for National and Regional Responsiveness Different product standardsDifferent customer needs and tastesBusinesses or consumers prefer locally made productsManaging details in a global organization is difficult and complex.Subsidiaries know local market needs and management practices better than headquarters.Employees in subsidiaries seek promotion opportunities.
15 Doing Business in China Technical competence is the primary criterion for doing business in China *Time is the major cultural difference between many Western countries and China – Chinese are patient negotiators and may take advantage of American impatience or time constraints.Guanxi :Good connections that result in lower costs, increased business, and better business opportunities.
16 Doing Business in China (2) Be a good listenerRealize that China is a collective societyUnderstand that the Chinese are less animated than Westerners. China is a neutral cultureEarly negotiations are likely to focus on general principles. The Chinese will be reluctant to change those later.Older Chinese may place values and principles above money and expediency. They value the good of their country or group.
17 Doing Business in China (3) Allow Chinese host to signal the beginning of a meetingUnderstand that Chinese are slow to decide on a course of action, but stick to the decision once madeChinese negotiators expect concessions but do not always make a concession in return.Do not display emotions during negotiationsTake a long-term perspective toward business opportunities.
18 Doing Business in Russia Build personal relationships with partnersUse local consultantsBe careful to uphold your own business ethics and the policies of your companyBe patientStress exclusivityDeal with just one firm at a timeDo not share your company's financial information
19 Doing Business in Russia (2) Research the company and the business environmentStress mutual gainClarify business terminologyBe careful about compromising or settling things quickly – most concessions should be made at the end.Russians believe that contracts are binding only if they are mutually beneficial. Continue to stress the benefits of the deal to them.Do not get into a dispute with the government.
20 Doing Business in India Many business people speak English.When dealing with people from India, one shouldBe on time for meetingsAvoid asking personal questionsUse formal titles when addressing othersAvoid public displays of affection
21 Doing Business in France Social class and status are more important in France than in the United StatesIn contrast to Americans, the French are:More tolerant of different points of viewMore inclined to determine a person’s trustworthiness on the basis of personal characteristics rather than accomplishments
22 Doing Business in France (2) In contrast to Americans, the French are: (2)More inclined to have highly centralized organizations with rigid structuresTop-level managers are more autocratic and less likely to be questioned.Less moved to industriousness and more concerned with the quality of life
23 Doing Business in France (3) Typical behavior of French negotiatorsThey try to find out about the other company’s objectives at the beginning of negotiationsThey don’t reveal their own objectives until the last stages of negotiationsDo not like to be rushed into making a decisionUsually will not make a decision during a meeting with another companyUsually will not make concessions unless you give them a logical reason for doing so
24 Doing Business in Poland Design products for Poland and use a Polish advertising agency.Do your homework. Poles are often shrewd negotiators.Be prepared to provide data. People are not impressed by "sales talk".Be prepared to make a long-term commitment.Take time to build relationships and gain trust.Be willing to "give something back" to the community.
25 Doing Business in Poland (2) Don't be afraid to ask questions about things that you don't understand.It's okay to ask sensitive questions, but be polite.If a question is important, keep asking until you get an answer. You may have to ask the question differently.Local governments have a large role in business regulation. Some areas are more conducive to business than others.
26 Doing Business in Poland (3) When dealing with older Poles, use professional titles (example: engineer), and do not call people by their first names until you are invited to do so.Business entertainment is less elaborate than in the U. S. Entertainment should be reciprocated.Be patient. Establishing a business will take longer than it would in the U. S.Many of these points would also apply in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.