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MEASURING HUMAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION RETURN ON INVESTMENT Dr. Tareq Ahram, Prof. Waldemar Karwowski The Institute for Advanced Systems Engineering University.

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Presentation on theme: "MEASURING HUMAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION RETURN ON INVESTMENT Dr. Tareq Ahram, Prof. Waldemar Karwowski The Institute for Advanced Systems Engineering University."— Presentation transcript:

1 MEASURING HUMAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION RETURN ON INVESTMENT Dr. Tareq Ahram, Prof. Waldemar Karwowski The Institute for Advanced Systems Engineering University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida Spring,2009 IASE Proprietary Information Limited Distribution

2 Overview Definition and Description of Human Systems Integration (HSI) Human Factors and Task Analysis HSI Domains and building blocks Benefits of HSI HSI Return on Investment (ROI) Conclusions

3 3 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. HSI Defined Human Systems Integration is defined as a process that optimizes the human part of the total system equation by integrating human factors engineering, manpower, personnel, training, health, safety, survivability, and habitability considerations into the system acquisition process. Hardware Humans Software Systems Engineering Integration Human-Computer Man-Machine Ensuring Systems Design & Development Meet Human Performance Capability Early in Acquisition Process

4 4 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. Human Factors is… A branch of applied science aimed at matching system, machines and tasks with the abilities of their human operators. The study, discovery, and application of information about human abilities, human limitations, and other human characteristics to the design of tools, devices, machines, systems, job tasks and environments for effective human performance. -Alphonse Chapanis What HFEs need to do… What they do best Know the USER!

5 5 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. Task Analysis and Modeling in Activity Theory: Cognitive Analysis, Quantify Economic, Productivity & Injury Issues for Human Factors in Acquisition Status: Provides comprehensive process overview of risk factors through all acquisition phases

6 6 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. Health Hazards Human Factors Engineering Human Survivability Human Systems Integration (HSI) Human Systems Integration (HSI) Human Systems Integration Domains Number of personnel, both men and women, military and civilian, required to operate and maintain the system Aptitudes, experiences & other characteristics needed to achieve optimal system performance Inherent ability of the system to be used, operated and maintained without accidental injury to personnel Requisite knowledge, skills & abilities needed by available personnel to operate and maintain systems under operational conditions Inherent conditions in the operation of a system that could cause death, injury, illness, disability or reduce job performance or personnel Integration of human character- istics into system definition, design, development and evaluation to optimize performance of human- machine combinations Characteristics of a system that can prevent damage; minimize medical injury if wounded; and reduce physical and mental fatigue. ManpowerPersonnelSystem SafetyTraining

7 7 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. HSI knowledge management components Source: Interactive Management of Human Factors Knowledge for Human Systems Integration, Electronic Globalized Business and Sustainable Development through IT Management: Strategies and Perspectives, (IGI-Global). (Ahram, Karwowski and Andrzejczak, 2009)

8 8 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. Requirements Functional Flow Block Diagram (FFBD) System Engineer Data View Systems Engineering and HSI Pieces Fit Together Systems Engineering Considerations

9 9 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. HSI model as a framework for analysis and traceability Source: Human Systems Integration: Development Based on SysML and the Rational Systems Platform. (Ahram et al. 2009)

10 10 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. Benefits of HSI The goal of human systems integration is to: Optimize total system performance, Accommodating the characteristics of the user population that will operate, maintain, and support the system, Minimize life-cycle costs.

11 11 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. Source: A Total Ship-Crew Model to Achieve Human Systems Integration, Dr. Loretta DiDonato CDR Joseph B. Famme USN (ret.),LCDR Alan Nordholm USN, Senior Chief Alan Lemon

12 12 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. Scenario & Instructor Control Flooding Operator Source: A Total Ship-Crew Model to Achieve Human Systems Integration, Dr. Loretta DiDonato CDR Joseph B. Famme USN (ret.),LCDR Alan Nordholm USN, Senior Chief Alan Lemon

13 13 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. Integration of Human Performance Modeling in Telelogic Doors A typical ENOVIA session with models and model preview

14 14 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. CATIA session for designing modern car seats with position prediction based on human factors engineering and ergonomics guidelines Source: Interactive Management of Human Factors Knowledge for Human Systems Integration, (Ahram, Karwowski & Andrzejczak, 2009)

15 15 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. Source: Interactive Management of Human Factors Knowledge for Human Systems Integration, (Ahram, Karwowski & Andrzejczak, 2009)

16 16 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. (Image source: HSI in Human Spaceflight, Susan D. Baggerman. March, 2007) Lack of Human-Centered Design Excessive Noise Levels Poor Usability of Procedures Excessive Vibration and Stress Levels Examples of Bad Designs

17 17 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. The tool box for the T-53 turbine engine (Huey & Iroquois) had 134 different tools. The tool KIT for the T-800 for the Comanche has only SIX tools instead of 134 Standard bolts throughout the engine provided the fix (some bolts too strong) Results Reduced workload for maintainer Less burden on the supply system Less training and inventory time Better combat readiness

18 18 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) found that: About 38 of 95 projects exceeded their original allocated budgets (extra $295 billion), and an average delay of 21 months in project schedules (Taubman 2008). Systems delivered almost two years late on average. None of the systems that the GAO looked at had met all of the standards for best management practices during their development stages. Major cause was the lack of human systems integration. Importance of HSI Source: Taubman, Philip. (June 25, 2008) Top Engineers Shun Military; Concern Grow. The New York Times

19 19 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. Importance of HSI Failure to employ human systems integration within the systems engineering process may result in: Failure to meet desired system objectives, Poor design, Unnecessary burdens on the workers, Negative impacts to the environment and public health and safety.

20 Human Systems Integration Building Blocks HSI process Requirements Analysis Requirements Analysis HSI Plan HSI RisksHSI Metrics Human Interfaces HSI Strategy Modeling

21 21 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. Modeling of HSI Return on Investment Starts with the identification of good HSI practices. Including factors such as cost reduction, meeting project schedule, increased safety and improved overall system performance. The expected result is a savings in both time and cost, with better system quality and increased safety.

22 22 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. The Multi-criteria Weighted Model To Estimate HSI Return On Investment The Human System Integration Return on Investment (HSI-ROI) model was developed based on the multi-criteria weighted HSI performance measures. In the multi-criteria weighted model we calculate the sum of weighted values of improved performance (cost savings) resulted from implementing HSI best practices.

23 23 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. Multiply savings associated with each HSI performance measure (i.e. dollar value) (K ) by the weight of the respective performance measure, assigned by HSI professionals. The Multi-criteria Weighted Model To Estimate HSI Return On Investment

24 24 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. = Savings resulted from reducing workforce costs. = Savings resulted from reducing training costs. = Savings resulted from avoiding accidents and injuries. = Savings resulted from increasing personnel habitability. = Savings resulted from increasing workers/personnel survivability. : Priority of HSI personnel performance measure : Priority of HSI training performance measure : Priority of HSI safety and health performance measure : Priority of HSI habitability performance measure : Priority of HSI survivability performance measure

25 25 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. In order to achieve best performance, program managers seek to: Minimize the dollar value spent on: training, manpower, maintenance personnel, Maximizing: safety, habitability and human survivability by avoiding accidents and injuries. The Multi-criteria Weighted Model To Estimate HSI Return On Investment

26 26 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. Challenges Providing quantitative value-added positive contribution, in terms of cost and schedule. Providing tools and methods that can help program managers and systems designers with answers to questions crucial to successfully meeting this challenge.

27 27 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. There is a need for more comprehensive HSI tools and techniques. Poor guidance and understanding on what HSI methods and tools can provide. Research in HSI indicates that employing best practices can shape better system decisions. Challenges

28 28 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. Conclusions The application of decision science into systems engineering to evaluate HSI return on investment is a new contribution to the field of systems engineering. The weighted multi-criteria model for leveraging the effect of multiple performance measures is anticipated to provide a better technique to quantify HSI-ROI for overall system performance.

29 29 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. Thank you ! Questions ? Contact Information:

30 30 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. References Cited AF SAB 2005 System-of-Systems Engineering for Air Force Capability Development, SAB-TR Air Force Science Advisory Board report (AF SAB-TR-04-04) Ahram, T. Z., Karwowski, W. Andrzejczak, C., (2009) Interactive Management of Human Factors Knowledge for Human Systems Integration, Electronic Globalized Business and Sustainable Development through IT Management: Strategies and Perspectives, (IGI-Global). Ahram, T. Z., Karwowski, W., Amaba, B., Obeid, P. (2009). Human Systems Integration: Development Based on SysML and the Rational Systems Platform, Proceedings of the 2009 Industrial Engineering Research Conference, Miami, FL. USA. Ahram, T. Z., Karwowski, W., (2009) Measuring Human Systems Integration Return on Investment The International Council on Systems Engineering – INCOSE Spring 09 Conference: Virginia Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Center (VMASC), Suffolk, VA. USA. Booher, Harold, ed. (2003). Handbook of human systems integration. New Jersey: Wiley. Chapanis, A. (1996). Human factors in systems engineering. Wiley Series in Systems Engineering and Management. Andrew Sage, series editor. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. DiDonato L., Famme J., Nordholm. A. (2004). A Total Ship-Crew Model to Achieve Human Systems Integration, I/ITSEC Dray, S. (1995). The importance of designing usable systems. Interactions 2 (1): 17–20. INCOSE INSIGHT Volume 11 No. 2. I/ITSEC

31 31 INCOSE Spring 09 Copyright © 2009 by Ahram and Karwowski. References Cited Hardman, Nicholas, Colombi John, Jacques, David, and Hill,Ray, (2008). What Systems Engineers Need to Know About Human Computer Interaction, INCOSE INSIGHT Volume 11 No. 2 Malone, T. B., and F. Carson. (2003). HSI top down requirements analysis. Naval Engineers Journal 115: Militello, L.G., C.O. Dominguez, G. Lintern, and G. Klein. Forthcoming. The cognitive systems engineering landscape. Nielson, J., and R. L. Mack, eds. (1994). Usability inspection methods. New York: Wiley. Taubman, Philip. (June 25, 2008) Top Engineers Shun Military; Concern Grow. The New York Times Website: Wickens, C., J. Lee, Y. Liu, and S. Gordon-Becker. (2004). An introduction to human factors engineering. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. I/ITSEC


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