Presentation on theme: "MEASURING HUMAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION RETURN ON INVESTMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1MEASURING HUMAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION RETURN ON INVESTMENT Dr. Tareq Ahram,Prof. Waldemar KarwowskiThe Institute for Advanced Systems EngineeringUniversity of Central FloridaOrlando, FloridaSpring,2009IASE Proprietary InformationLimited Distribution
2Overview Definition and Description of Human Systems Integration (HSI) Human Factors and Task AnalysisHSI Domains and building blocksBenefits of HSIHSI Return on Investment (ROI)Conclusions
3HSI DefinedHuman Systems Integration is defined as a process that optimizes the human part of the total system equation by integrating human factors engineering, manpower, personnel, training, health, safety, survivability, and habitability considerations into the system acquisition process .Ensuring Systems Design & Development Meet Human Performance Capability Early in Acquisition ProcessHardwareHumansSoftwareSystems EngineeringIntegrationHuman-ComputerMan-Machine
4What they do best Know the USER! Human Factors is…A branch of applied science aimed at matching system, machines and tasks with the abilities of their human operators.The study, discovery, and application of information about human abilities, human limitations, and other human characteristics to the design of tools, devices, machines, systems, job tasks and environments for effective human performance.-Alphonse ChapanisWhat HFEs need to do…What they do bestKnow the USER!
5Task Analysis and Modeling in Activity Theory: Cognitive Analysis, Quantify Economic, Productivity & Injury Issues for Human Factors in AcquisitionStatus: Provides comprehensive process overview of risk factors through all acquisition phases
6Human Systems Integration Domains Integration (HSI)ManpowerPersonnelSystem SafetyTrainingNumber of personnel,both men and women,military and civilian,required to operate andmaintain the systemAptitudes, experiences & other characteristics needed to achieve optimal system performanceInherent ability of the system to be used, operated and maintained without accidental injury to personnelRequisite knowledge, skills & abilities needed by available personnel to operate and maintain systems under operational conditionsHealthHazardsHuman FactorsEngineeringHumanSurvivabilityInherent conditions in the operation of a system that could cause death, injury, illness, disability or reduce job performance or personnelIntegration of human character-istics into system definition, design, development and evaluation to optimize performance of human-machine combinationsCharacteristics of a system that can prevent damage; minimize medical injury if wounded; and reduce physical and mental fatigue.
7HSI knowledge management components Source: “Interactive Management of Human Factors Knowledge for Human Systems Integration”, Electronic Globalized Business and Sustainable Development through IT Management: Strategies and Perspectives, (IGI-Global). (Ahram, Karwowski and Andrzejczak, 2009)
8Functional Flow Block Diagram (FFBD) System Engineer Data View Systems Engineering and HSI “Pieces Fit Together” Systems Engineering ConsiderationsRequirementsFunctional Flow Block Diagram (FFBD)System Engineer Data View
9HSI model as a framework for analysis and traceability Source: Human Systems Integration: Development Based on SysML and the Rational Systems Platform. (Ahram et al. 2009)
10Benefits of HSI The goal of human systems integration is to: Optimize total system performance,Accommodating the characteristics of the userpopulation that will operate, maintain, and supportthe system,Minimize life-cycle costs.
11Source: A Total Ship-Crew Model to Achieve Human Systems Integration, Dr. Loretta DiDonato CDR Joseph B. Famme USN (ret.),LCDR Alan Nordholm USN, Senior Chief Alan Lemon
12Scenario & Instructor Control “Flooding” OperatorScenario & Instructor Control “Flooding”Source: A Total Ship-Crew Model to Achieve Human Systems Integration, Dr. Loretta DiDonato CDR Joseph B. Famme USN (ret.),LCDR Alan Nordholm USN, Senior Chief Alan Lemon
13Integration of Human Performance Modeling in Telelogic Doors A typical ENOVIA session with models and model preview
14CATIA session for designing modern car seats with position prediction based on human factors engineering and ergonomics guidelinesSource: Interactive Management of Human Factors Knowledge for Human Systems Integration,(Ahram, Karwowski & Andrzejczak, 2009)
15Source: Interactive Management of Human Factors Knowledge for Human Systems Integration, (Ahram, Karwowski & Andrzejczak, 2009)
16Examples of Bad Designs Excessive Noise LevelsLack of Human-Centered DesignPoor Usability of ProceduresExcessive Vibration and Stress Levels(Image source: HSI in Human Spaceflight , Susan D. Baggerman. March, 2007)
17The tool box for the T-53 turbine engine (Huey & Iroquois) had 134 different tools. The tool KIT for the T-800 for the Comanche has only SIX tools instead of 134Standard bolts throughout the engine provided the fix (some bolts “too” strong)ResultsReduced workload for maintainerLess burden on the supply systemLess training and inventory timeBetter combat readiness
18Importance of HSIThe Government Accountability Office (GAO) found that:About 38 of 95 projects exceeded their original allocated budgets (extra $295 billion), and an average delay of 21 months in project schedules (Taubman 2008).Systems delivered almost two years late on average.None of the systems that the GAO looked at had met all of the standards for best management practices during their development stages.Major cause was the lack of human systems integration.Source: Taubman, Philip. (June 25, 2008) Top Engineers Shun Military; Concern Grow. The New York Times
19Importance of HSIFailure to employ human systems integration within the systems engineering process may result in:Failure to meet desired system objectives,Poor design,Unnecessary burdens on the workers,Negative impacts to the environment andpublic health and safety.
20Human Systems Integration Building Blocks HSI processRequirementsAnalysisHSI PlanHSI RisksHSI MetricsHumanInterfacesHSI StrategyModeling
21Modeling of HSI Return on Investment Starts with the identification of good HSI practices.Including factors such as cost reduction, meeting project schedule, increased safety and improved overall system performance.The expected result is a savings in both time and cost, with better system quality and increased safety.
22The Multi-criteria Weighted Model To Estimate HSI Return On Investment The Human System Integration Return on Investment (HSI-ROI) model was developed based on the multi-criteria weighted HSI performance measures.In the multi-criteria weighted model we calculate the sum of weighted values of improved performance (cost savings) resulted from implementing HSI best practices.
23The Multi-criteria Weighted Model To Estimate HSI Return On Investment Multiply savings associated with each HSI performance measure (i.e. dollar value) (K ) by the weight of the respective performance measure, assigned by HSI professionals.
24= Savings resulted from reducing workforce costs. = Savings resulted from reducing training costs.= Savings resulted from avoiding accidents and injuries.= Savings resulted from increasing personnel habitability.= Savings resulted from increasing workers/personnel survivability.: Priority of HSI personnel performance measure: Priority of HSI training performance measure: Priority of HSI safety and health performance measure: Priority of HSI habitability performance measure: Priority of HSI survivability performance measure
25The Multi-criteria Weighted Model To Estimate HSI Return On Investment In order to achieve best performance, program managers seek to:Minimize the dollar value spent on: training, manpower, maintenance personnel,Maximizing: safety, habitability and human survivability by avoiding accidents and injuries.
26ChallengesProviding quantitative value-added positive contribution, in terms of cost and schedule.Providing tools and methods that can help program managers and systems designers with answers to questions crucial to successfully meeting this challenge.
27ChallengesThere is a need for more comprehensive HSI tools and techniques.Poor guidance and understanding on what HSI methods and tools can provide.Research in HSI indicates that employing best practices can shape better system decisions.
28ConclusionsThe application of decision science into systems engineering to evaluate HSI return on investment is a new contribution to the field of systems engineering.The weighted multi-criteria model for leveraging the effect of multiple performance measures is anticipated to provide a better technique to quantify HSI-ROI for overall system performance.
30References Cited I/ITSEC AF SAB 2005 “System-of-Systems Engineering for Air Force Capability Development”, SAB-TR-05-04 Air Force Science Advisory Board report (AF SAB-TR-04-04)Ahram, T. Z., Karwowski, W. Andrzejczak, C., (2009) “Interactive Management of Human Factors Knowledge for Human Systems Integration”, Electronic Globalized Business and Sustainable Development through IT Management: Strategies and Perspectives, (IGI-Global).Ahram, T. Z., Karwowski, W., Amaba, B., Obeid, P. (2009). “Human Systems Integration: Development Based on SysML and the Rational Systems Platform”, Proceedings of the 2009 Industrial Engineering Research Conference, Miami, FL. USA.Ahram, T. Z., Karwowski, W., (2009) “Measuring Human Systems Integration Return on Investment” The International Council on Systems Engineering – INCOSE Spring 09 Conference: Virginia Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Center (VMASC), Suffolk, VA. USA.Booher, Harold, ed. (2003). Handbook of human systems integration. New Jersey: Wiley.Chapanis, A. (1996). Human factors in systems engineering. Wiley Series in Systems Engineering and Management. Andrew Sage, series editor. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.DiDonato L., Famme J., Nordholm . A. (2004). A Total Ship-Crew Model to Achieve Human Systems Integration, I/ITSECDray, S. (1995). The importance of designing usable systems. Interactions 2 (1): 17–20.INCOSE INSIGHT Volume 11 No. 2.I/ITSEC
31References Cited I/ITSEC Hardman, Nicholas, Colombi John, Jacques, David, and Hill,Ray, (2008). What Systems Engineers Need to Know About Human Computer Interaction, INCOSE INSIGHT Volume 11 No. 2Malone, T. B., and F. Carson. (2003). HSI top down requirements analysis. Naval Engineers Journal 115:Militello, L.G., C.O. Dominguez, G. Lintern, and G. Klein. Forthcoming. The cognitive systems engineering landscape.Nielson, J., and R. L. Mack, eds. (1994). Usability inspection methods. New York: Wiley.Taubman, Philip. (June 25, 2008) Top Engineers Shun Military; Concern Grow. The New York Times Website:Wickens, C., J. Lee, Y. Liu, and S. Gordon-Becker. (2004). An introduction to human factors engineering. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.I/ITSEC