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© Keith G Jeffery, Anne G S Asserson GL 11 Washington Keith G Jeffery Director, IT & International Strategy, STFC Anne G S Asserson Research Department University of Bergen MOSAIC Shades of Grey Realisation through Formalisation
© Keith G Jeffery, Anne G S Asserson GL 11 Washington Structure Background The Hypothesis Proposed Architecture –Objects, Data and Metadata –Requirements –Architectural Solution Conclusion
© Keith G Jeffery, Anne G S Asserson GL 11 Washington Background: Mosaic / Grey Designed –For a purpose Formal structure –To improve access and understanding Composed –Of component pieces in structures Representation –Of something in the human mind Communicate –The idea to others Effort –To produce the grey objects and to provide the repository
© Keith G Jeffery, Anne G S Asserson GL 11 Washington Hypothesis A grey literature collection is much better collected, structured, catalogued, utilised and maintained within the context of a research environment (commonly known as e-Research or e-Science) which relies on CERIF-CRIS to provide –improved metadata for each GL object –contextual research information –access to other recorded research information –thus improving the integration and publicising of grey within the research scene. The key is –improved data collection, –improved interoperation –improved query relevance and recall all based on the formal syntax and declared semantics of a CERIF-CRIS.
© Keith G Jeffery, Anne G S Asserson GL 11 Washington Objects, Data and Metadata Conventional metadata in Grey repositories is insufficiently formal resulting in much end-user effort in –Input –browsing for retrieval –interoperation If metadata has formal syntax and declared semantics –Improved ease of data input –Ensuring quality of data –Providing automated retrieval with improved recall & relevance –Reliable automated interoperation
© Keith G Jeffery, Anne G S Asserson GL 11 Washington Requirements Input of grey object and its metadata –Pre-filling –Workflow (bite-sized chunks) –validation Retrieval of set of grey objects meeting criteria –Recall –Relevance –Homogeneous access over heterogeneous sources Subsequent processing –Count, sum, average graphics, modelling Relating to other information –To provide the end-user with the complete picture
© Keith G Jeffery, Anne G S Asserson GL 11 Washington Architectural Solution (1) same canonical schema; formal syntax and declared semantics; data for some purposes, metadata for others; linking relations between entities with date/.time stamp and role such that –the structure is articulated flexibly, –new entities can be added and related –links to external systems can be made using the same framework
© Keith G Jeffery, Anne G S Asserson GL 11 Washington Architectural Solution (2) the above provide an optimal base framework for the processing required including –input within a progressive workflow, –retrieval and reporting, –subsequent processing including statistical and graphical reports –interlinking to other systems both within and outside of the research organisation.
© Keith G Jeffery, Anne G S Asserson GL 11 Washington PROJECTORGUNIT SkillsCV General Facility Particular Equipment Contact Results Publication Results Patent Results Product Service Funding Programme Event Classification Prize/Award PERSON CERIF: EU Recommendation to Member States CERIF
© Keith G Jeffery, Anne G S Asserson GL 11 Washington Result Publication Instance Diagram Person A Publication X OrgUnit O OrgUnit M OrgUnit N Project P member employee Part of owns IPR author Project leader Metadata in CERIF- CRIS much richer than usual repository
© Keith G Jeffery, Anne G S Asserson GL 11 Washington CERIF- CRIS + Repositories at 1 institution CRIS Research Context [projects, persons, organisational units funding, products, patents, publications facilities, equipment, events] OA Repository (hypermedia) Documents e-Research repository Datasets and Software OAI- PMH Various protocols End-User CERIF
© Keith G Jeffery, Anne G S Asserson GL 11 Washington ….and multiple institutions CRIS OA repository e-Research repository CRIS OA repository e-Research repository CRIS OA repository e-Research repository End-User Institution AInstitution BInstitution C
© Keith G Jeffery, Anne G S Asserson GL 11 Washington Conclusion (1) The mosaic of grey literature is not yet revealed easily. Its complex patterns representing structures, and the beauty of the complete form are not recognised. This is because of –the heterogeneity of the sources, –the lack of a canonical schema either fo storage/query/results management interoperation over heterogeneous systems. Worse, existing sources use metadata schemas that –do not have sufficiently formal syntax –lack declared semantics both of which can be rectified by the use of CERIF.
© Keith G Jeffery, Anne G S Asserson GL 11 Washington Conclusion (2) The take-home message is clear: use CERIF as the canonical schema for grey literature. to accommodate legacy systems use a CERIF wrapper. This would mean that: –1. query and retrieval provide better relevance and recall; –2. data input quality is improved; –3. systems can interoperate, to provide the end-user with a homogeneous view over heterogeneous distributed systems; –4. statistical and graphical processing can be reliable; –5. interoperation with other systems within and outwith the research organisation is facilitated.
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