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Roma in an Expanding Europe - Panel Session: Who are Roma? Roma and Statistics: Balancing Privacy Concerns and Policy Evaluation Official Statistics and.

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Presentation on theme: "Roma in an Expanding Europe - Panel Session: Who are Roma? Roma and Statistics: Balancing Privacy Concerns and Policy Evaluation Official Statistics and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Roma in an Expanding Europe - Panel Session: Who are Roma? Roma and Statistics: Balancing Privacy Concerns and Policy Evaluation Official Statistics and Ethnicity: The UK Experience Robert Bumpstead Office for National Statistics

2 UK Context Post-War immigration and growth of minority ethnic population Ethnicity question included national household surveys 1970s and Census from 1990s Recent adoption of further range of identity questions by major national surveys Underpinning this : recognition of real and continuing inequalities of opportunity and outcome

3 Overview Measuring Ethnicity What to measure –Concepts, classifications and questions How to measure –Sampling, privacy and response Why measure –Policy context, drivers and objectives

4 Defining ethnicity Definitional Problems –Complex: ascribing and classifying –Dynamic: changing terminology and interaction –Contested: imposing artificial boundaries Some have argued that it is impossible to devise a meaningful set of categories and have pointed to problems arising from existing definitions - that people may define themselves in different ways at different times and in different contexts and that some categories may mean different things to different people (Gordon, 1996)

5 2001 Census ethnic question What is your ethnic group? Choose ONE section from A to E, then the appropriate box to indicate your cultural background. A White British Irish Any other White background, please write in B Mixed White and Black Caribbean White and Black African White and Asian Any other Mixed background, please write in C Asian or Asian British Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Any other Asian background, please write in D Black or Black British Caribbean African Any other Black background, please write in E Chinese or other ethnic group Chinese Any other, please write in

6 Underlying principles Acceptability and Practicality –Balance between user needs and respondent understanding. Inclusivity and usability. Importance of Standardisation –Across suppliers, data types and geographies Flexibility and comparability –Adaptable questions to meet different needs –Range of output options that can be standardised in comparable collapsible hierarchical framework encourage reporting at most detailed level possible

7 Output categories 99 point classification possible Standard 16 point for England & Wales –White British –White Irish –Any other White background –White and Black Caribbean –White and Black African –White and Asian –Any other Mixed background –Indian –Pakistani –Bangladeshi –Any other Asian background –Black Caribbean –Black African –Any other Black background –Chinese –Any other ethnic group Can collapse to 5 point classification or variants in between –White –Mixed –Asian –Black –Chinese & Other

8 Breakdown of the UK minority ethnic population, 2001 Mixed 14.6% Asian or Asian British Indian 22.7% Pakistani16.1% Bangladeshi 6.1% Other Asian 5.3% Black or Black British Black Caribbean12.2% Black African10.5% Other Black 2.1% Chinese 5.3% Other 5.0% All minority ethnic population 100

9 Sampling Strategies Survey sampling minority ethnic groups –Techniques to improve reliability of estimates Oversampling and sample Boosts Focussed enumeration –Utilise largest existing surveys Making Census more representative –Focus resources in likely areas of low response –Produce information and support in 30 languages –Estimation and adjustment for non-response Known as One Number Census

10 Countering Non-Response Incentivising and other strategies Partnership with representative groups –Case Study: Introduction of new voluntary religion question on Census 2001 Formal and informal consultation and collaboration with faith groups Regular contact and information on progress Follow-through consultation and participation in analytic and publication programme

11 Census Religion Question: Response Rate by Ethnic Group United Kingdom 2001Percentages Source: Census 2001

12 Item Non-Response Question design and acceptability –Question Testing Qualitative and quantitative piloting and testing –Inclusivity of answer options –Context and order effects Question sensitivity –Mode of completion Self-completion and CASI (Computer Assisted Self- Completion)

13 Privacy and Confidentiality Confidentiality of information paramount –Protected by law Data Protection Act, Census Act (1920) –Strict procedures for data access and release –Ensure published data non-disclosive aggregate results, disclosure thresholds small cell random adjustment, record swapping Can encourage participation –Provided principles communicated intelligibly

14 Policy Drivers The Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 places a duty on all public bodies to: Promote equality and good relations between person of different races whilst performing their functions. –Importantly this includes a duty to monitor impact of policies and publish results Other legislation including EU directives (religion) Departmental targets (PSAs) –Public Service Agreements contain specific objectives and measurable targets Example : Employment... Why measure ethnicity

15 Unemployment rates by ethnic group United Kingdom 2001/02Percentages Source: ALALFS, 2001/02 * working age population

16 Policy Impact: Further Examples Outcome monitoring by ethnicity –e.g Health & patient satisfaction –e.g Education & access to training Produce specific recommendations and outcomes Ethnic employment monitoring –e.g UK Prison Service Considers rank and progression as well as recruitment Cultural participation by ethnicity –e.g Participation in state funded arts & culture Funding implications for equality of access

17 Policy Impact: Local Examples Local profiling by ethnicity and religion has many uses –e.g Schools and local education authorities Develop culturally relevant curriculum, activities etc. –e.g Police Service Develop staff profiles more representative of local area Assist in informing training programs to promote community relations

18 Summary and Contact Details It is vitally important that we do measure ethnicity and identity and that we do so in a way that is sound, sensitive, relevant and useful. Understanding peoples ethnicity is key to understanding many of todays social and economic trends (Len Cook, UK National Statistician 2003) Contact details: Please

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