Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Asian Soybean Rust University of Illinois State Soybean Rust Taskforce

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Asian Soybean Rust University of Illinois State Soybean Rust Taskforce"— Presentation transcript:

1 Asian Soybean Rust University of Illinois State Soybean Rust Taskforce
Suzanne Bissonnette, IPM Educator

2 Soybean Rust Pustules Underside Leaf


4 Predicted Spore Deposition by a Hypothetical Hurricane
Weather-Based Assessment of Soybean Rust Threat to North America, Final Report to APHIS, 15 July 2004, Scott Isard, et al.



7 Hurricane “Ivan” the Terrible Modeled Spore Deposition
Map December 3, 2004 As presented in: US Soybean Rust Detection and Aerobiological Modeling, November, 2004,

8 Soybean Production Distribution and Rust detections
December 6, 2004

9 Action Plan for Soybean Rust
Illinois state rust taskforce plan Collaboration of state, federal, university, private, grower and applicator organizations Initial detection, diagnosis, and confirmation Field  DDDI  plant clinic national mycologist  notification management

10 Soybean Rust Identification
Two species differentiated based on microscopic morphological differences in teliospore characteristics Phakopsora meibomiae (mild) Phakopsora pachyrhizi (Asian Soybean Rust, severe) Ono, Buriticá and Hennen Cross-section uredia Cross section telia

11 Spread of Soybean Rust Natural –windborne urediniospores produced in large quantities under moderate temperatures and high humidity. Life cycle ~7-10 days, infection to spore production. Artificial – movement of infected live plants, leaf material, pods, and stems. Soybean Rust is not seed borne. Soybean Rust will not over winter on dead plants.

12 Hosts of Soybean Rust (>90)
Legumes (Papilionoideae) Cultivated Crops: Soybean Glycine max Lima & butter bean Phaseolus lunatus Green & kidney bean Phaseolus vulgaris Cowpea Vigna unguiculata Pigeon pea Cajanus cajan Yam bean, jicama Pachyrhizus erosus Ornamental plants: Hyacinth bean, lupine, royal poinciana Wild hosts: Kudzu, sweet clover Kudzu infected with soybean rust

13 Kudzu : Pueraria montana var lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. Almeida

14 Kudzu population Distribution and Rust detections December 6, 2004

15 Asian Soybean Rust on Kudzu over wintering host, early inoculum source?

16 Yield Loss From Soybean Rust Is a Result Of:
Premature defoliation Increase in number of unfilled pods/plant Decrease in # of seeds/plant Decrease in seed weight Decrease in germinability of seed Yield losses begin at approx. 3% severity

17 Management of Soybean Rust, Illinois Research program
Short-term solutions Fungicide evaluations Long-term solutions Host resistance Specific resistance Partial resistance Yield stability (tolerance) Introduction of resistance from other sources Combination of fungicides and resistance Glen L. Hartman1, Monte Miles1, and Reid Frederick2, 1USDA-Agricultural Research Service,Department of Crop Sciences, National Soybean Research Center University of Illinois, Urbana, IL,2FDWSR, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD

18 Breeding Programs Historical Screening of Germplasm
Initial studies 1961 ≈ 2,800 accessions screened in Taiwan (U.S collection) 1970 ≈ 4,000 accessions screened in India (U.S. Collection) 1975 ≈ 1,675 accessions (MG V-X) screened in Taiwan (AVRDC) From these studies, sources of resistance were found and the inheritance of resistance was characterized

19 Major Genes for Resistance & Year They Were Defeated
Original Source Resistant Susceptible Year ID (ineffective) Rpp1 PI Komata In 73-1* Tw 72-1 Immune Tw 80-1 (1966) Rpp2 PI230970 Tw 72-1 Pp 77-1* (1978) Rpp3 PI Ankur Tw 72-1 (1977) Rpp4 PI Bing Nan Tw 80-2* Tw 72-1*

20 Evaluation of U.S. And Exotic Germplasm for Resistance to Soybean Rust & Disease Management Strategies Determine the resistance/susceptibility of soybean varieties currently grown in the U.S. to soybean rust Identify resistance in the germplasm Evaluate 16,000 accessions in the USDA National Soybean Collection (Fort Detrick) Evaluate reported sources of resistance (Fort Detrick & international locations) Evaluate yield stability (tolerance) Frederick, Bonde, Yang & Hartman, UBS Supported)

21 Fort Detrick Maryland Containment Research Facilities (secured greenhouse etc.)
Only location in continental US where Soybean rust research has been allowed to date

22 Identified Partial Resistance (epidemic is slowed due to fewer pustules or spores)
Entry Pustules per plant Pustules per leaf Pustules at node 7 AGS 129 1,776 41 104 AGS 181 3,849 130 87 GC 5,934 168 176 GC 2,108 49 150 KS 8 2,715 76 107 SRE C-56A 803 23 25 SRE C-56E 709 19 29 SRE D-14C 2,159 58 17 SRE D-14D 2,100 54 51

23 Rust Phenotypes pustule types for evaluation in greenhouse or field
Tan pustule A fully susceptible reaction Reddish brown pustule (RB) Indicates some type of resistance Tan Reddish Brown (RB)

24 Significant Variation by Location

25 Preliminary Summary of Field Evaluations
Not one soybean accession was found to be resistant at all locations Known single genes had less disease severity in some sites, but also TAN and RB lesions at other sites

26 B. US Commercial Variety Entries
940 cultivars were screened in a single plant screen 212 were screened an a second single plant screen, with two inoculation dates, 14 and 28 days after planting None were resistant C Stone

27 Brand New Editions Be ready with effective scouting

28 Disease Scouting for Soybean Rust**
Typical disease patterns Random spots in field with diffuse borders ** Field edges Whole field** Patterned Headlands, historical, mechanical Low / high spots ** Expect these patterns for rust

29 Assessment of Disease Incidence: Severity:
The number of plants (or units) affected by disease with in a population ie 47 of 100 plants diseased= 47% incidence ie 34 of 100 leaflets diseased= 34% incidence Severity: The measure of actual damage done by disease Some keys measure severity of the whole plant Some keys measure severity on infected leaves

30 Assessment of Rust Severity
Researchers generally assess rust disease as disease severity of key leaves. Rust pustules only occupy a maximum of 37% of the area on a leaf. This is equivalent to 100% infection of that leaf.

31 Rust Severity Assessment Key
A= actual amount of tissue occupied by pustules (Cobb scale) B= equivalent damage to leaf (Modified Cobb) * If A=18.5% area occupied by pustules, this is equivalent to B=50% damage to the leaf *

32 Disease Scouting for Soybean Rust Incidence
U of I currently recommends determining incidence rather than severity for scouting protocol. Examine 20 plants in 5 random locations in a field. Note: one plant with any amount of rust in 100 plants = 1% incidence

33 Soybean Rust Scouting Field Pattern
Scout in a zig-zag pattern in the field making observations of 20 plants in 5 locations

34 Illinois Scouting – “Look Low As You Go”
When scouting examine the lower quarter of soybean plants Examine the undersides of leaves for pustules. If you suspect rust collect 20 leaflets exhibiting symptoms. Place flat, dry leaflets between paper towels. Double bag suspect leaflets in zip lock bags. Clearly label sample.

35 IL Extension Distance Diagnostics (DDDI Available in all Units in Illinois)
Sample Process digital images submitted for you by Unit Diagnosis reply to Unit Samples may then require submission to U of I Plant Clinic.

36 IL Extension Distance Diagnostics (DDDI Available in all Units in Illinois)
No fee for DDDI samples. Plant Clinic fee ($12.50) paid by ISPOB if sample is pre-screened with DDDI Expect to pay overnight shipping prior to detection in state.

37 Foliar Symptoms Soybean Rust not distinguishing must look closer

38 Symptoms & Signs of Soybean Rust
Look for pustules and chlorosis on undersides of lower leaves before flowering. Severity increases with time and rainfall – lesions can develop on all leaves followed by defoliation Observe chlorosis Look at underside of leaves Observe pustules with hand lens

39 Soybean Rust Pustules Underside leaves*, Stems, Petioles, Cotyledons

40 Other Soybean Diseases that Can Be Confused with Soybean Rust
Septoria Brown Spot J. Pataky U of I

41 Other Soybean Diseases that Can Be Confused with Soybean Rust
Bacterial Pustule Bacterial Blight

42 Other Soybean Diseases that Can Be Confused with Soybean Rust
Downy Mildew

43 Un-treated Strip Between 2 Fields in South America

44 What You Need to Know About Rust Fungicide Types
Protectant +/- absorbed +/- translocated Prevent infection or sporulation Use before infection Strobilurins, chlorothalonils Curative Absorbed Translocate Kill fungal tissue Use after infection Triazoles

45 Fungicides Registered for Treatment of Soybean Rust or With EPA Section 18 Fungicide ** Trade Name Family Action Chlorothalonil Bravo Weather Stik, Echo 720 & 90DF Chloronitriles (Benzonitriles) Protectant Azoxystrobin Quadris Strobilurin Pyraclostrobin Headline Myclobutanil Laredo EC & EW Triazole Curative Propiconizole Tilt, Propimax, Bumper Tebuconazole Folicur **Section 3 compounds in green, others Section 18 (1/19/05) NOTE: only a total of 2 applications of Sec 18 products are allowed in 1 season

46 Additional Fungicides That Have or May Get EPA Section 18’s
Trade Name Family Action Pyraclostrobin + Boscalid Pristine, pending? Strobilurin + Carboximide Protectant Tetraconazole Domark, pending Triazole Curative Propiconizole + Trifloxystrobin Stratego, approved Triazole + Strobilurin Curative + Protectant Azoxystrobin + Propiconizole Quilt pending ( oz) 0.5% COC NOTE: only a total of 2 applications of Sec 18 products are allowed in 1 season

47 Fungicides Strategy for Soybean Rust Management in S. America, S
Fungicides Strategy for Soybean Rust Management in S. America, S. Africa General Brazil (J. Yorinori): Application at first detection Second spray days later for protective fungicides 20-25 days later for protective/curative fungicides. Timing of the first spray depends on when the first infection is detected, weather conditions, and mode of action of the fungicide General Zimbabwe (C. Levy, M. Miles, G. Hartman): Apply first spray soon after flowering Apply second application days later Third application only in a severe epidemic

48 Fungicide Spray Recommendations (lessons from other countries)
Protectant (strobilurins,chloronitriles): Apply prior to infection. Strobilurins loose effectiveness after 3-5% severity. Strobilurins no more than once /season Curative (triazoles): Apply when rust is present. After 10% severity triazoles may not provide full yield protection.

49 What Should We Do in Illinois?
Scenario A: Disease Expected Rust expected, not yet present Apply Protectant Fungicide (Benzonitriles, Strobilurins) Disease still expected now need 2nd spray Apply Curative (Triazole)

50 What Should We Do in Illinois?
Scenario B Disease expected & develops after 1st application Disease expected not yet present Strobilurin, Benzonitriles Disease expected or now present need 2nd spray Triazole Disease still present need 3rd application Benzonitriles (PHI), Triazole

51 Prepare Yourself for Soybean Rust Before It Arrives
Equip sprayers with proper nozzles Pre-plan fungicide spray program Who? How much acreage/day? Plan to scout “Low as you go” weekly Take representative sample Get it properly identified Manage resistance to fungicides, follow label

52 Presentation by S. Bissonnette, D. Bowman, D. Malvick, M. Montgomery
Acknowledgements: Presentation by S. Bissonnette, D. Bowman, D. Malvick, M. Montgomery Acknowledge slides & jpg’s from G. Hartman, M. Miles, USDA-ARS, Oregon State Univ., R. Frederick, M. Palm, University of Illinois Extension

Download ppt "Asian Soybean Rust University of Illinois State Soybean Rust Taskforce"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google