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Digital, Hybrid & Virtual Libraries

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Presentation on theme: "Digital, Hybrid & Virtual Libraries"— Presentation transcript:

1 Digital, Hybrid & Virtual Libraries
Muhammad Ajmal Khan

2 Outline What is Library Definitions History Classification Principles
Characteristics Myths Challenges Conclusion

3 What is Library Characteristics
Collection of books, documents, newspapers, audio visual materials kept and organized for people to read or borrow. Characteristics Collection of data objects Collection of Metadata Structures Collection of Services Domain Focus Quality Control Preservation

4 Definitions Digital Library Hybrid Library Virtual Library
Collection of electronic resources that provides direct/indirect access to a systematically organized collection of digital objects. Hybrid Library Provides services in a mixed-mode, electronic and paper, environment, particularly in a co-coordinated way. Derived from a strand of eLib which explored the issues surrounding the retrieval and delivery of information in these types of environment but also investigated the integration of different electronic services so that single search approach could be offered to the End user. Virtual Library Access to electronic information in a variety of remote locations through a local online catalogue or other gateway, such as the internet

5 History International Perspective Vennever Bush’s Memx Machine, 1945
Invention of Internet 1983 World Wide Web by Tim Berners Lee, 1989 Digital Library Initiative I Digital Library Initiative II ( )

6 History Pakistani Perspective
Karachi Institute of Information Technology Digital Library, 2002 United Nations Digital Library, 2003 Iqbal Urdu Cyber Library, 2003 Higher Education Commission Digital Library PakLAG Digital Library Model, 2005

7 Memex by Vennever Bush

8 United Nations Digital Library


10 Characteristics of Digital Library
Universal and unlimited access Contents will be in digital format which can be utilized only with the help of computer Contents in textual, image, sound and video form Collection to connection

11 Principles of Digital Library Development
Expect Change Know your contents Involve the right people Design usable systems Ensure open access Be(a)ware of data rights Automate whenever possible Adopt and adhere to standards Ensure quality Be concerned about persistence

12 Components of Digital Library

13 Types of Digital Libraries
Stand-alone Digital Library (SDL) Federated Digital Library (FDL) Harvested Digital Library (HDL)

14 Stand-alone Digital Library (SDL)
This is the regular classical library implemented in a fully computerized fashion. SDL is simply a library in which the holdings are digital (scanned or digitized). The SDL is self-contained - the material is localized and centralized.

15 The ACM Digital Library

16 IEEE Computer Society DL

17 Federated Digital Library (FDL)
This is a federation of several independent SDLs in the network, organized around a common theme, and coupled together on the network. A FDL composes several autonomous SDLs that form a networked library with a transparent user interface. The different SDLs are heterogeneous and are connected via communication networks.

18 Networked Digital Library of Theses & Dissertation

19 Bibliographic Navigation Tools for Digital Libraries
SCOPUS ELIN Knowledge Cite Library Database Advisor OCLS’ FirstSearch



22 Harvested Digital Library (HDL)
This is a virtual library providing summarized access to related material scattered over the network. . Examples of HDLs are the Internet Public Library (IPL) A HDL holds only metadata with pointers to the holdings that are "one click away" in Cyberspace. Developed by Library Professionals, or Computer Scientists

23 Four Corner Stones of Digital Library
Communication technologies Community Content Computer

24 Community Library Professionals Library Users IT Professionals Vendors

25 Communication Technologies
Communication Networks Web Servers, Bandwidth, Local Area Network, Internet and software Network standards The Digital Object Identifier; Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP); Persistent URL Home Page; Z39.50;

26 Contents Images Animation Video

27 Contents Audio Web Page Text Programs .WAV .MID .SND .AUD .mp3

28 Contents Markup standards
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML); Extensible Markup Language (XML); Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML);

29 Contents Metadata standards Dublin Core;
MARC 21; Encoded Archival Description (EAD);

30 Computer Personal Computer Server Machines

31 Digital Library Conceptual Models

32 PakLAG Digital Library Model
Relational Database (MySQL) Stores Metadata Web Server (Tomcat)/ Digital Object Repository Web Browser (IE, Netscape etc.) User User

33 Myths The internet is the digital library
Fully automated library is digital library The myth of a single digital library or one-window view of digital library collections Digital libraries will provide more equitable access, anywhere, any time Digital libraries will be cheaper than print libraries

34 Challenges Interoperability Technical, process, language, ( Different platforms etc) Building digital collections 2.a Digitization 2.b Acquisition of original digital works 2.c Access to external materials Metadata Naming, identifiers, and persistence 4.a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) 4.b Persistent Uniform Resource Locator (PURL) 4.c Uniform Resource Name (URN) 4.d Digital Object Identifier

35 Challenges Copyright / rights management 5.a Usage tracking 5.b Identifying and authenticating users 5.c Providing the copyright status of each digital object, and the restrictions on its use or the fees associated with it Preservation 6.a Preservation of the storage medium 6.b Preservation of access to content

36 Conclusion The concepts of Digital and Virtual libraries are actually services added to the traditional libraries wherein the resources which can only be utilized with computers. We hope digital libraries will coexist with traditional libraries whether within them or as separate entities. However the role of professionals will be drastically changed in digital environment. Digital libraries have customers instead of users and provide pull and push information delivery methods.

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