# Post workshop materials

## Presentation on theme: "Post workshop materials"— Presentation transcript:

Post workshop materials
The Solar System Post workshop materials

Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre

Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre
What we are going to do... In The Solar System workshop you performed five experiments all about the different planets We are going to bring together all our different results to see what we learnt

This is what scientists do!
Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre This is what scientists do! Scientists all over the world share their results, just like we’re going to do Can you think why it is better to collect lots of different results together, rather than just looking at one person’s results?

Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre
Jump to an experiment: Click a link below to jump to that experiment Gravity Pots Cratering Density Seasons How do we see? When you see this picture  Click it to return to this slide You can also move through the PowerPoint normally, to view all experiments in order

Experiment: Gravity Pots! Where is gravity the strongest?
Jupiter Experiment: Gravity Pots! Where is gravity the strongest? Neptune Earth Venus Mars Moon Did you know...? A black hole has more gravity than anything else in the universe!

Do you think that weight is a pulling force,
What is gravity? All planets have gravity Gravity gives things weight, which is the force that keeps us on the ground Do you think that weight is a pulling force, or a pushing force?

Weight is a pulling force
Weight pulls everything towards the centre of the Earth!

Gravity on other planets
The strength of gravity is different on different planets If gravity is twice as strong, things will weigh twice as much Did you know...? If you stood on the Moon, you would weigh 1/6th what you do on the Earth, because the Moon’s gravity is 1/6th of Earth’s!

Your experiment Neptune You weighed 6 containers and matched them up to where they came from Earth Venus Mars Moon Jupiter

Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre
Your results Now download the excel file ‘Gravity Pots’ from the school trips section of our website. Use this to collect the class results together. Click here to link to the file Questions Which space place has the strongest gravity? Which has the weakest gravity? Can you find a pattern?

Were you right? What is the pattern? Pot 1 Pot 2 Pot 3 Pot 4 Pot 5
Venus Jupiter Moon Neptune Earth Mars What is the pattern?

Gravity: The pattern The more stuff a planet is made from, the greater the strength of gravity Get ready to test your understanding!

Which planet would have the largest gravity? Click on a planet to see if you are right! Uranus = 15 Earths Neptune = 17 Earths Saturn = 95 Earths Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Harder question: Which planet would have the lowest gravity? Click on a planet to see if you are right! Uranus = 15 Earths Neptune = 17 Earths Saturn = 95 Earths Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Experiment: Cratering! What makes the biggest craters?

What are craters? If you look up at the Moon with a telescope, you will see that it is covered in craters Did you know...? The Earth also has some craters, like this one in Arizona, USA

How are craters made? Craters are made when an object from space (like a rock) smashes into the surface and leaves behind a hole

Do rocks fall to Earth? Yes! Rocks that fall from space are called meteorites On the Earth, we are protected from meteorites by the atmosphere (the air) Meteorites get very hot as they fall through the atmosphere and they burn up. This is what causes shooting stars! (Shooting stars aren’t really stars at all – just bits of falling rock!)

Are we in danger? Our atmosphere protects us from small meteorites because they burn up as they fall Luckily big meteorites (like the type that could hurt us) are very rare! Also, there are telescopes looking into space to watch out for any big meteorites that might be coming our way!

Why does the Moon have so many craters?
The Moon has no atmosphere, so it has no protection from meteorites Every meteorite that hits the Moon, no matter how small, makes a crater!

Your experiment You dropped an object from different heights onto your planet and measured the size of the crater

Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre
Your results Now download the excel file ‘Cratering’ from the school trips section of our website. Use this to collect the class results together. Click here to link to the file Question: Which combination of ball and height makes the biggest craters?

Craters: The pattern The heavier balls and highest drops make the biggest craters This is because heavy and fast things hit with more energy Get ready to test your understanding!

Which space rock would cause the most damage? Click on a meteorite to see if you are right! Ida (15 km across) Gaspra (6 km across) Mathilde (50 km across) Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Harder question Which space rock would cause the most damage? Click on a meteorite to see if you are right! Ida Size = 15 km across Speed = 100,000 km an hour Gaspra Size = 6 km across Speed = 60,000 km an hour Mathilde Size = 50 km across Speed = 10,000 km an hour Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Experiment: Density! What floats, what sinks?

Floating and sinking It’s not just size or weight that determines whether something floats or sinks For example, ships float even though they are very big and very heavy!

What makes things float?
It’s not just size or weight that determines whether something floats or sinks: it’s a combination of the two It is the amount of stuff within a certain amount of space which determines whether something will float or sink We call this density

What is density? Something which has a lot of weight, but in a small space is dense 1 kg of iron takes up a small space, so iron is dense

What is density? 1 kg of feathers takes up much more space than the iron! This is because feathers are not very dense

Density in the Solar System
The second four planets are much less dense, because they are made of gas The first four planets are more dense, because they are solid and made of rock

Your experiment You placed objects in water and wrote down which objects floated and which sank Discuss your results Are there any objects groups disagree on? How many people in the class float? How many sink? Why do you think some objects float and some sink in water?

Density: The Pattern If something is more dense than water, it will sink If something is less dense than water, it will float Get ready to test your understanding!

Which planet would float in water? (Density of water = 1,000 kg per m³) Click on a planet to see if you are right! Saturn Density = 687 kg per m³ Earth Density = 5,540 kg per m³ Jupiter Density = 1,326 kg per m³ Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Experiment: The Seasons! Why do we have different seasons?

Why do we have different seasons?
It is all because the Earth is tilted in space The imaginary blue line running through the centre of the Earth is called the Earth’s axis The Earth’s axis is tilted in space by 23.5°

Your experiment You used a tellurium to move a model of the Earth around the Sun. You answered questions about the seasons.

In which season do we have long days and short nights? When are days and nights the same length? Why do we have different seasons?

Were you right? Here are the answers!
In which season do we have long days and short nights? SUMMER! When are days and nights the same length? SPRING AND AUTUMN Why do we have different seasons? BECAUSE OF THE EARTH’S TILT... SOMETIMES WE’RE TILTED TOWARDS THE SUN AND SOMETIMES WE’RE TILTED AWAY!

When we are tilted towards the Sun, it is Summer When we are tilted away from the Sun, it is Winter Get ready to test your understanding!

Which position shows winter for the UK? Click on an Earth to see if you are right! Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Which position shows summer for the UK? Click on an Earth to see if you are right! Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Harder question Which position shows summer for Australia (southern hemisphere)? Click on an Earth to see if you are right! Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Harder question Which position shows autumn for the UK? Click on an Earth to see if you are right! Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Experiment: How do we see? How do our eyes work?

How do we see? Our eyes contain a lens
The job of the lens is to bring together (or focus) light to the back of our eye Did you know...? The front of your eyeball bulges outwards, so it’s not actually a ball shape!

How do we see? The back of our eye contains the retina
This is the part of the eye that sees the light, a bit like the film in a camera

Why is this important? It’s important that the lens focuses light onto the retina properly, otherwise we can’t see very well

These are called glasses (or contact lenses)!
If the lens in our eyes does not focus light properly, we can place an extra lens in front of the eye to help These are called glasses (or contact lenses)! Did you know...? The first pair of glasses was invented in Italy in 1286!

How do scientists use this?
Knowing about how we see and how lenses work is very important for astronomy It has allowed us to build telescopes that can see much further into space! Did you know...? The Hubble space telescope orbits above the Earth. It was launched in It still sends us fantastic views of far-away space.

Your experiment You used two lenses on a model eye to simulate long-sightedness and short-sightedness You tried to correct the vision with other lenses

Lens 2 represented short-sightedness. Which lens (4 or 5) corrected it? Lens 3 represented long-sightedness.

Which diagram shows light entering the eye correctly? Click on a diagram to see if you are right! Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre
Congratulations! Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre You have completed your experiments into the Solar System. Well done! What have you learnt today? Please press Escape to exit the slideshow