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# Post workshop materials

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Post workshop materials
The Solar System Post workshop materials

Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre
You will need... Your copies of your worksheets

Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre
What we are going to do... In The Solar System workshop you performed five experiments all about the different planets We are going to bring together all our different results to see what we learnt

This is what scientists do!
Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre This is what scientists do! Scientists all over the world share their results, just like we’re going to do Can you think why it is better to collect lots of different results together, rather than just looking at one person’s results?

Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre
Jump to an experiment: Click a link below to jump to that experiment Gravity Pots Cratering Density Seasons How do we see? You can also move through the PowerPoint normally, to view all experiments in order When you see this picture  Click it to return to this slide

Experiment: Gravity Pots! Where is gravity the strongest?
Jupiter Moon Mars Earth Did you know...? A black hole has more gravity than anything else in the universe!

Do you think that weight is a pulling force,
What is gravity? All planets have gravity Gravity gives things weight, which is the force that keeps us on the ground Do you think that weight is a pulling force, or a pushing force?

What is gravity? Weight is a pulling force
Weight pulls everything towards the centre of the Earth!

What is gravity? The strength of gravity is different on different planets If gravity is twice as strong, things will weigh twice as much Did you know...? If you stood on the Moon, you would weigh 1/6th what you do on the Earth, because the Moon’s gravity is 1/6th of Earth’s!

Your experiment You weighed 4 containers and matched them up to where they came from Jupiter Moon Mars Earth

Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre
Your results Now download the excel file ‘Gravity Pots’ from our website and use it to collect the class results together Question: Why did you make your choices?

Were you right? Can you spot a pattern? Pot 4 Pot 1 Pot 2 Pot 3 Mars
Moon Mars Earth Jupiter Can you spot a pattern?

Gravity: The pattern The more stuff a planet is made from, the greater the strength of gravity Get ready to test your understanding!

Test your understanding!
Which planet would have the largest gravity? Click on a planet to see if you are right! Uranus = 15 Earths Neptune = 17 Earths Saturn = 95 Earths Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Test your understanding!
Harder question: Which planet would have the lowest gravity? Click on a planet to see if you are right! Uranus = 15 Earths Neptune = 17 Earths Saturn = 95 Earths Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Experiment: Cratering! What makes the biggest craters?

What are craters? If you look up at the Moon with a telescope, you will see that it is covered in craters Did you know...? The Earth also has some craters, like this one in Arizona, USA

What are craters? Craters are made when an object from space (like a rock) smashes into the surface and leaves behind a hole

What are craters? Rocks that fall from space are called meteorites
On the Earth, we are protected from meteorites by the atmosphere Meteorites get very hot as they fall through the atmosphere and they burn up. This is what causes shooting stars! (Shooting stars aren’t really stars at all – just bits of falling rock!)

Are we in danger? Our atmosphere protects us from small meteorites because they burn up as they fall Luckily big meteorites (like the type that could hurt us) are very rare! Also, there are telescopes looking into space to watch out for any big meteorites that might be coming our way!

What are craters? The Moon has no atmosphere, so it has no protection from meteorites Every meteorite that hits the Moon, no matter how small, makes a crater! That’s why the Moon has so many craters!

Your experiment You dropped an object from different heights onto your planet and measured the size of the crater

Question: Which combination makes the biggest craters?
Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre Your results Now download the excel file ‘Cratering’ from our website and use it to collect the class results together Question: Which combination makes the biggest craters?

Craters: The pattern Heavy and fast meteorites make the biggest craters. This is because they hit with more energy. Get ready to test your understanding!

Test your understanding!
Which space rock would cause the most damage? Click on a meteorite to see if you are right! Ida (15 km across) Gaspra (6 km across) Mathilde (50 km across) Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Test your understanding!
Harder question Which space rock would cause the most damage? Click on a meteorite to see if you are right! Gaspra Size = 6 km across Speed = 60,000 km an hour Ida Size = 15 km across Speed = 100,000 km an hour Mathilde Size = 50 km across Speed = 10,000 km an hour Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Experiment: Density! What floats, what sinks?

What makes things float?
It’s not just size or weight that determines whether something floats or sinks Ships float even though they are very big and very heavy!

What makes things float?
It’s not just size or weight that determines whether something floats or sinks: it’s a combination of the two It is the amount of stuff within a certain amount of space which determines whether something will float or sink We call this density

What makes things float?
Something which has a lot of weight, but in a small space is dense 1 kg of iron takes up a small space, so iron is dense

What makes things float?
1 kg of feathers takes up much more space than the iron! This is because feathers are not very dense

Density & The Solar System
The second four planets are much less dense, because they are made of gas The first four planets are more dense, because they are solid and made of rock

Your experiment You placed objects in water and wrote down which objects floated and which sank Discuss your results Are there any objects groups disagree on? How many people in the class float? How many sink? Why do you think some objects float and some sink in water?

Density: The Pattern If something is more dense than water, it will sink If something is less dense than water, it will float Get ready to test your understanding!

Test your understanding!
Which planet would float in water? (Density of water = 1,000 kg/m³) Click on a planet to see if you are right! Saturn Density = 687 kg/m³ Earth Density = 5540 kg/m³ Jupiter Density = 1326 kg/m³ Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Experiment: The Seasons! Why do we have different seasons?

Why do we have different seasons?
It is all to do with the fact that the Earth is tilted in space The blue imaginary line is called the Earth’s axis The Earth’s axis is tilted in space by 23.5°

Your experiment You used a tellurium to move a model of the Earth around the Sun. You answered questions about the seasons.

Your results Discuss your answers to the questions
In which season do we have long days and short nights? When are days and nights the same length? Why do we have different seasons?

Were you right? Here are the answers!
In which season do we have long days and short nights? SUMMER! When are days and nights the same length? SPRING AND AUTUMN Why do we have different seasons? BECAUSE OF THE EARTH’S TILT

Seasons: The pattern When we are tilted towards the Sun, it is Summer
When we are tilted away from the Sun, it is Winter Get ready to test your understanding!

Test your understanding!
Which position shows winter for the UK? Click on an Earth to see if you are right! Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Test your understanding!
Which position shows summer for the UK? Click on an Earth to see if you are right! Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Test your understanding!
Harder question Which position shows summer for Australia (southern hemisphere)? Click on an Earth to see if you are right! Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Test your understanding!
Harder question Which position shows autumn for the UK? Click on an Earth to see if you are right! Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Experiment: How do we see? How do our eyes work?

How do we see? Our eyes contain a lens
The job of the lens is to bring together (or focus) light to the back of our eye Did you know...? The front of your eyeball bulges outwards, so it’s not actually a ball shape!

How do we see? The back of our eye contains the retina
This is the part of the eye that sees the light, a bit like the film in a camera

How do we see? It’s important that the lens focuses light onto the retina properly, otherwise we can’t see very well

How do we see? If the lens in our eyes does not focus light properly, we can place an extra lens in front of the eye to help These are called glasses (or contact lenses)! Did you know...? The first pair of glasses was invented in Italy in 1286!

How do we see? Knowing about how we see and how lenses work is very important for astronomy It has allowed us to build telescopes that can see much further into space Did you know...? The Hubble space telescope orbits above the Earth. It was launched in It still sends us fantastic views of far-away space.

Your experiment You used two lenses on a model eye to simulate long-sightedness and short-sightedness You tried to correct the vision with other lenses

Your results Discuss your answers to the questions
Lens 2 represented short-sightedness. Which lens (4 or 5) corrected it? Lens 3 represented long-sightedness.

Your results What do your rays of light look like?
Get ready to test your understanding!

Test your understanding!
Which diagram shows light entering the eye correctly? Click on a diagram to see if you are right! Click the Earth to return to the contents page, or click anywhere to continue 

Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre
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