Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Organizational Environments and Cultures Dr. Ellen A. Drost"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 3 Organizational Environments and Cultures Dr. Ellen A. Drost
2External Environments After reading the next four sections, you should be able to:discuss how changing environments affect organizations.describe the four components of the general environment.explain the five components of the specific environmentdescribe the process that companies use to make sense of their changing environments.
3External Environment External environment is dynamic and complex. Change is constant.Characteristics of Changing External EnvironmentsExternal environments are the forces and events outside a company that have the potential to influence or affect it.1
4External EnvironmentExhibit 3.2 shows the two kinds of external environments that influence organizations: the general environment and the specific environment.The general environment consists of the economy and the technological, sociocultural, and political/legal trends that indirectly affect all organizations. Changes in any sector of the general environment eventually affect most organizations. For example, most businesses benefit when the Federal Reserve lowers its prime lending rate, because banks and credit card companies will then lower the interest rates they charge for loans. Consumers, who can then borrow money more cheaply, will borrow more money to buy homes, cars, refrigerators, and large-screen TVs.By contrast, each organization has a specific environment that is unique to that firm’s industry and directly affects the way it conducts day-to-day business. The specific environment, includes customers, competitors, suppliers, industry regulation, and advocacy groups.2
5Components of the General Environment EconomyTechnological trendsSociocultural trendsPolitical / Legal trendsThe general environment consists of the economy and the technological, sociocultural, and political/legal trends that indirectly affect all organizations.More information follows.2
6Economy Growing vs. shrinking economies Predicting future economic activityBusiness confidence indicesThe current state of a country’s economy affects most organizations operating in it. In a growing economy, more people are working and have more money to spend. A growing economy provides an environment favorable to business growth. In contrast, in a shrinking economy, consumers have less money to spend, and relatively fewer products, making growth for individual businesses more difficult.Because economic statistics can be such poor predictors, some managers try to predict future economic activity by keeping track of business confidence. Business confidence indices show how confident actual managers are about future business growth. For example, the Fortune Business Confidence Index is a monthly survey of chief financial offices at large Fortune 1000 firms.Another widely cited measure is the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Business Confidence Index, which asks 7,000 small business owners to express their optimism (or pessimism) about future business sales and prospects. Managers often prefer business confidence indices to economic statistics, because they know that the level of confidence reported by real managers affects their business decisions. In other words, it’s reasonable to expect managers to make decisions today that are in line with their expectations concerning the economy’s future.2.1
7Technological Component InformationOutputInputTechnology-- KnowledgeToolsTechniquesRaw MaterialsServicesProductsTechnology is the knowledge, tools, and techniques used to transform input into output. For example, the knowledge of authors, editors, and artists (technology) and the use of equipment like computers and printing presses (also technology) transformed paper, ink, and glue (raw material inputs) into this book (the finished product). In the case of a service company such as an airline, the technology would consist of equipment, such as airplanes, repair tools, and computers, and the knowledge of mechanics, ticketers, and flight crews. The output would be the service of transporting people from one place to another.Companies must embrace new technology and use it to improve products and services or decrease costs. If they don’t, they will lose out to competitors who do. Chapter 7, on Innovation and Change, provides a more in-depth discussion of how technology affects a company’s competitive advantage.2.2
8Impact of TechnologyTechnology can be a great benefit or a daunting threat. MP3 players have created a tremendous new businessWhile technological changes can benefit a business, they can also threaten it. For example, the impact of Kazaa.com has affected the sales of music CDs significantly.opportunity for some, like Apple, Creative, and other manufacturers. But record labels have suffered from the rapid acceptance of digital music and persistent file swapping.2.2
9Sociocultural Component Sociocultural ComponentsDemographic changesChanges in behavior, attitudes, and beliefsThe sociocultural component of the general environment refers to the demographic characteristics and general behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of people in a particular society.First, changing demographic characteristics, such as the number of people with particular skills, or the growth or decline in particular population segments (single or married; old or young; men or women; Caucasians, Hispanics, Blacks, or Asians; etc.) affects how companies run their businesses. For example, the next slide shows that married women with children are more likely to work today than four decades ago.Today, with traffic congestion creating longer commutes and with both parents working longer hours, employees are much more likely to value products and services that allow them to recapture free time with their families. Priscilla La Barbera, a marketing professor at New York University, believes that there’s been a “societal shift” in the way people view their free time. She said, “…people are beginning to realize that their time has real value.” Companies, such as CDW in Vernon, Illinois, provides a service that picks up dry cleaning at their desks. At First Command Financial Planning, Fort Worth, Texas, employees can borrow movies and receive free shoe shining and car washing.Sociocultural changes in behavior, attitudes, and beliefs also affect the demand for a business’s products and services. Today’s harried worker/parent can find services that have all the supplies you need for kids’s birthday parties. These services are a direct result of the need for more efficient time management, which is a result of the sociocultural changes, associated with a much higher percentage of women in the work place.2.3
11Political / Legal Component LegislationRegulationsCourt decisionsManagers must be educated about the laws, regulations, and potential lawsuits that could affect businessThe political/legal component includes the legislation, regulations, and court decisions that govern and regulate business behavior. In recent years, news laws and regulations have imposed additional responsibilities on companies. Unfortunately, many managers are unaware of these new responsibilities.Another area in which companies face potential legal risks these days is from customer-initiated lawsuits. For example, under product liability law, manufacturers can be liable for products made decades ago. Also, the law, as it is now written, does not consider whether manufactured products have been properly maintained and used.From a managerial perspective, the best medicine against legal risk is prevention. As a manager, it is your responsibility to educate yourself about the laws and regulations and potential lawsuits that could affect your business. Failure to do so may put you and your company at risk of sizable penalties, fines, or legal charges.Web Link2.4
12Specific Environment Customer Competitor Supplier Industry Regulation Advocacy GroupIn contrast to general environments that indirectly influence organizations, changes in an organization’s specific environment directly affect the way a company conducts its business. If customers decide to use another product, or a competitor cuts prices 10 percent, or a supplier can’t deliver raw materials, or federal regulators specify that industry pollutants must be reduced, or environmental groups accuse your company of selling unsafe products, the impact on your business is immediate.3
13Monitoring customer wants and needs is critical for business success Customer ComponentMonitoring customer wants and needs is critical for business successReactive customer monitoringresponding to problems, trends, and eventsProactive customer monitoringanticipating problems, trends, and eventsCustomers purchase products and services, and companies cannot exist without customer support. Therefore, monitoring customers’ changing wants and needs is critical to business success.There are two basic strategies for monitoring customers: reactive and proactive. Reactive customer monitoring is identifying and addressing customer trends and problems after they occur. One reactive strategy is to identify customer concerns by listening closely to customer complaints. Not only does listening to complaints help identify problems, but the way in which companies respond to complaints indicates how closely they are attending to customer concerns. For example, companies that respond quickly to customer letters of complaint are viewed much more favorably than companies that are slow to respond or never respond. In particular, studies have shown that when a company’s follow-up letter thanks customers for writing, offers a sincere, specific response to the customer’s complaint, and contains a small gift, coupons, or a refund to make up for the problem, customers will be much more likely to purchase products or services again from that company.Proactive monitoring of customers means trying to sense events, trends, and problems before they occur (or before customers complain).3.1
14Competitor Component Competitive Analysis Deciding who your competitors areAnticipating competitors’ movesDetermining competitors’ strengthsand weaknessesOften, the differences between business success and failure comes down to whether your company is doing a better job of satisfying customer wants and needs than is the competition. Consequently, companies need to keep close track of what their competitors are doing. This is called competitive analysis.Managers tend to make two mistakes when they do their competitive analysis:They tend to focus on only two or three well-known competition with similar goals and resources.They underestimate potential competitors’ capabilities. When this happens, managers don’t take the steps they should to continue to improve their products or services. The result can be significant decreases in both market share and profits.3.2
15Opportunistic Behavior Relationship Behavior Supplier ComponentOpportunistic BehaviorSuppliersBuyer DependenceSupplier DependenceRelationship BehaviorSuppliers are companies that provide material, human, financial, and informational resources to other companies.A key factor influencing the relationship between companies and their suppliers is how dependent they are on each other.Supplier dependence is the degree to which a company relies on a supplier because of the importance of the supplier’s product to the company and the difficulty of finding other sources of that product.Buyer dependence is degree to which a supplier relies on a buyer because of the importance of that buyer to the supplier and the difficulty of selling its products to other buyers.A higher degree of buyer or seller dependence can lead to opportunistic behavior, in which one party benefits at the expense of the other. Opportunistic behavior between buyers and suppliers will never be completely eliminated. However, many companies believe that both buyers and suppliers can benefit by improving the buyer-supplier relationship.Relationship behavior focuses on establishing a mutually beneficial, long-term relationship between buyers and suppliers.3.3
16Industry Regulation Component Consists of regulations and rules that govern the business practices and procedures of specific industries, businesses, and professionsThe industry regulation component consists of regulations and rules that govern the practices and procedures of specific industries, businesses, and professions.Regulatory agencies affect businesses by creating and enforcing rules and regulations to protect consumers, workers, or society as a whole.Overall, the number and cost of federal regulations has nearly tripled in the last 25 years. However, businesses are not just subject to federal regulations. For every $1 the federal government spends creating regulations, businesses spend $45 to comply with them. They must also meet state, county, and city regulations, too. Surveys indicate that managers rank government regulation as one of the most demanding and frustrating parts of their jobs.3.4
17Federal Regulation Agencies Consumer Product Safety CommissionDepartment of LaborEnvironmental Protection AgencyEqual Employment Opportunity CommissionFederal Communications CommissionFederal Reserve SystemFederal Trade CommissionFood and Drug AdministrationNational Labor Relations Boardnlrb.govOccupational Safety and Health AdministrationSecurities and Exchange CommissionMGMT Facts lists some of the federal regulatory agencies and commissions.3.4
18And that’s just for manufacturing. Cost of ComplianceResearchers studied U.S. manufacturers and the cost they incur complying with the 25 major federal regulations. Researchers found:There are about 300,000 manufacturing companies in the U.S.Each company spends roughly $2.2 millionSo, the aggregate cost of complying with federal regulations is roughly$660 billionAnd that’s just for manufacturing.S. Kovitch, “A Second Look at Regulation’s Cost,” Regulation, Summer 2004, 2-4.W. M. Crain and J. M. Johnson, “Determining Workplace Regulation's Cost,” Regulation, Fall 2004, 2-4.
19Advocacy Groups Advocacy Groups Groups of concerned citizens who band together to try to influence the business practices of specific industries, businesses, and professionsTechniques to try to influence companiespublic communicationsmedia advocacyproduct boycottsAdvocacy groups are groups of concerned citizens who band together to try to influence the business practices of specific industries.Unlike the industry regulation component of the specific environment, advocacy groups cannot force organizations to change their practices. However, they can use a number of techniques to try to influence companies: public communications, media advocacy, and product boycotts.The public communications approach relies on voluntary participation by the news media and the advertising industry to get an advocacy group’s message out. Such as the public service announcements for World No Tobacco Day.A media advocacy approach typically involves framing issues as public issues (i.e., affecting everyone); exposing questionable, exploitative, or unethical practices; and obtaining media coverage by buying media time or creating controversy that is likely to receive extensive news coverage. PETA’s actions are a good example of this approach.A product boycott is a tactic in which an advocacy group actively tries to convince consumers to not purchase a company’s product or service. Such groups are now using the web to get “the word out” on boycotts as evidenced by Ecopledge.com.3.5
20PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) Advocacy GroupsPETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals)is a well-known advocacy group that attempts to influence consumers and companies to pursue animal-friendly practices.Procter & Gamble is regularly a target of PETA, which argues the consumer-products giant should eliminate its animal-testing program. P&G, however, believes that abandoning the program altogether would pose undue risks to babies and children, for whom the company makes numerous products.
21Making Sense of Changing Environments Environmental ScanningEvaluatingExternalEnvironmentsInterpreting Environmental FactorsActing on Threats and OpportunitiesIn Chapter 1, you learned that managers are responsible for making sense of their business environments. However, our discussions of the general and specific environments indicate that making sense of business environments is not an easy task.Because external environments can be dynamic, confusing, and complex, managers use a three-step process to make sense of the changes in their external environments: 4.1 environmental scanning, 4.2 interpreting environmental factors, and 4.3 acting on threats and opportunities.4
22Environmental Scanning searching the environment for events or issues that might affect an organizationkeeps companies current on industry factorsreduces uncertaintyalters organizational strategiescontributes to organizational performanceEnvironmental scanning is searching the environment for important events or issues that might affect an organization.Managers scan the environment to stay up-to-date on important factors in their industry.Managers scan the environments to reduce uncertaintyOrganization strategies also affect environmental scanning. Managers pay close attention to trends and events that are directly related to the company’s ability to compete, and may come across information by accident.Environmental scanning contributes to organizational performance, and helps managers detect environmental changes and problems before they become organizational crises. Furthermore, companies whose CEOs do more environmental scanning have higher profits. CEOs in better-performing firms scan their firm’s environments more frequently and scan more key factors in their environments in more depth and detail than do CEOs in poorer-performing firms.4.1
23Interpreting Environmental Factors Environmental ScanOpportunities?Threats?After scanning the environment for information, managers must make sense of the data they have gathered.Threats mean potential harm to an organization and managers take steps to protect the company from further damage.By contrast, when managers interpret environmental events as opportunities, they will consider strategic alternatives for taking advantage of the event to improve company performance.4.2
24Internal Environments After reading this section, you should be able to:explain how organizational cultures are created and how they can help companies be successful.
25Internal Environments Consists of the trends and events within an organization that affect its resources, such as technology, IT, finance, management, employees, and organizational culture.important because it affects what people think, feel, and do at workorganizational culture is the set of key values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by organizational membersExternal environments are external trends and events that have the potential to affect companies. The internal environment consists of the trends and events within an organization that affect the management, employees, and organizational culture.Internal environments affect what people think, feel, and do at work. As the text’s discussion on SAS indicates, culture is the most important part of an organization’s internal environment and a reason that SAS employees rarely quit. Organizational culture is the set of key values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by organizational members.5
26Creation and Maintenance of Organizational Cultures Organizational HeroesOrganizational StoriesCompany FounderA primary source of organizational culture is the company founder. For example, Thomas J. Watson (IBM, Sam Walton (Wal-Mart), Bill Gates (Microsoft), and Frederick Maytag (Maytag) create organizations in their images that they imprint with their beliefs, attitudes, and values.When the founders are gone, the organizational culture is sustained through stories and heroes.Organizational stories make sense of organizational events and changes and emphasize culturally consistent assumptions, decisions, and actions. For example, at Wal-Mart, stories abound about the thriftiness of Sam Walton.Second, organizational culture is sustained by recognizing and celebration heroes, admired for their qualities and achievements.5.1
27Successful Organizational Cultures EmployeeSatisfactionQualityConsistencyAdaptabilityInvolvementClear VisionSalesGrowthReturn onAssetsProfitsPreliminary research shows that organizational culture is related to organizational success. Cultures based on adaptability, involvement, a clear mission, and consistency can help companies achieve higher sales growth, return on assets, profits, quality, and employee satisfaction.Adaptability is the ability to notice and respond to changes in the organization’s environment.In cultures that promote higher levels of employee involvement in decision making, employees feel a greater sense of ownership and responsibility.A company’s vision is its purpose or reason for existing. In organizational cultures in which there is a clear organizational vision, the organization’s strategic purpose and direction are apparent to everyone in the company. And, when managers are uncertain about their business environments, the vision helps guide the discussions, decisions, and behavior of the people in the company.Finally, in consistent organizational cultures, the company actively defines and teaches organizational values, beliefs, and attitudes. Consistent organizational cultures are also called strong cultures, because the core beliefs are widely shared and strongly held.5.2Source: D.R. Denison & A.K. Mishra, Organization Science 6 (1995):
28Levels of Organizational Culture Symbolic artifactsBehaviors1. Surface LevelSEENWhat people sayHow decisions are made2. Expressed Values and BeliefsHEARDBeliefs and assumptionsRarely discussed3. Unconsciously Held Assumptions and BeliefsBELIEVEDAs shown in exhibit 3.4, organizational culture exists on three levels:At surface level, the reflections of an organization’s culture can be seen, heard, or observed.Next are the values and beliefs expressed by the company. By listening to what people say and how decisions are made, those values and beliefs become clear.Finally, unconsciously held assumptions and beliefs are buried below the surface. These are the unwritten views and rules that are strongly held and widely shared, but are not discussed or thought about unless someone attempt to change them or violates them.5.3