Presentation on theme: "THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT Palmer: Introduction to MarketingTHE MARKETING ENVIRONMENTChapter 2
2SESSION OVERVIEW This session will: explore the external influences on marketingshow how marketers must respond to a constantly changing social, economic, technical and political environmentidentify the internal environment of an organisation as crucial for the success of marketing plans
3DEFINITION OF THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT "... the individuals, organisations and forces external to the marketing management function of an organisation that impinge on the marketing management's ability to develop and maintain successful exchanges with its customers"
4COMPONENTS OF THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT Micro-environmentMacro-environmentInternal environmentMacro tends to be long terms trends that impact upon an organisationMicro can changes that impact on a day to day basis e.g. your competitors launch a superior product this could impact upon your sales very quickly.
5THE MICRO-ENVIRONMENT Comprises all those organisations and individuals who directly or indirectly affect the activities of a company. It includes:CustomersIntermediariesSuppliersOther stakeholders
6STAKEHOLDERS OF ORGANISATIONS Stakeholders include:Customersemployeeslocal communitiesgovernmentintermediariessuppliersfinancial communityIt is important to research and monitor key stakeholders and note they their interest or influence can change over time.
7THE VALUE CHAINRaw materials are progressively transformed by members of the micro-environment into high value productsOnly the consumer can define value added
9RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MEMBERS OF THE MICRO-ENVIRONMENT Organisations that make up a firm’s micro-environment are referred to as the “environmental set”Membership and relationships between them change over time
10THE MACRO-ENVIRONMENT Comprises general forces and trends rather than specific organisations:Macro-economic environmentPolitical environmentSocial and cultural environmentDemographic environmentTechnological environmentEcological environmentThis is more commonly expressed as PESTLE analysis. Note this is dynamic and changes over time which presents both opportunities and threats. For example, the recent recession has put a squeeze on consumer spending in supermarkets. However supermarkets have responded by offering more value products to an increasingly price sensitive customers. However they at the same time have been able to increase their range of own label products (they make more profit on these).
11MACRO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT How much money do consumers have available to spend?How much will they have in the future?How fierce is competition in the market?Useful to include
12POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT What are politicians saying that might affect our customers and our marketing activities?Cuts in government spending?? New tax allowances??What external pressures are influencing politicians?Useful to include
13SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT What will be the challenges and opportunities arising from greater cultural diversity?Cultural convergence or a greater need for cultural identity?Attitudes to 24/7 society?Useful to include
14DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT More affluent, fit, elderly people in the populationWhat other demographic trends have marketers reacted to?What changes should they be anticipating?Useful to include
15TECHNOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT How will new technology affect marketing?new products?new promotional media?new distribution channels?Useful to include
16ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT Growing concern about the ecological environment – e.g. global warmingEcological environment is a resource for businessGood marketers need to be seen not to harm itUseful to include
17MONITORING AND RESPONDING TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE Organisations that do not adapt may decline and dieTo avoid this, organisations must:understand what is going on in their business environmentrespond and adapt to this changeInformation about the environment is crucial, but won’t produce decisions
18SWOT ANALYSISA framework for understanding internal strengths and weaknessesThese are matched against external opportunities and threats
19THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Other internal functions, e.g. finance, operations, personnel impinge on the marketing functionMarketing is affected by:organisational processesthe allocation of responsibilities within the organisation
20DON’T FORGET THE WORKERS…. In many services companies, marketing plans will be difficult to implement by a “bad employer”Timpson is a highly rated employer - contributes to marketing success
21THE FLEXIBLE ORGANISATION Flexibility is needed to respond to environmental changeRequires flexible labour forceThe organisation should be able to rapidly downsize / expand capacity
22SUMMARY OF KEY POINTSValue is created through interaction with other individuals and organizations that make up the marketing environment.The marketing environment cannot be neatly divided into distinct areas. A good marketer should understand the complex linkages between different parts of the environment.Micro-environment influences may demand urgent attention, but macro-environment influences can have a more profound long-term effect on an organization’s marketing.