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Welcome to CSE 124: Networked Services Fall 09 B. S. Manoj, Ph.D Lecture 1 9/24/20091UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to CSE 124: Networked Services Fall 09 B. S. Manoj, Ph.D Lecture 1 9/24/20091UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09."— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome to CSE 124: Networked Services Fall 09 B. S. Manoj, Ph.D Lecture 1 9/24/20091UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09 Some of these slides are adapted from various sources/individuals including but not limited to Prof. Amin Vahdat, Prof. James Kurose, Prof. Keith Ross, CAIDA, The Internet Society, SDSU,,, and other sources. Use of these slides other for pedagogical purpose may require explicit permissions from the respective sources.

2 Contents Course Goals Resources Audience Main objectives Grading History of the Internet Growth of Internet Introduction to the Internet Summary 9/24/20092UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

3 Course Resources Instructor: B. S. Manoj (a.k.a Manoj Balakrishnan) Office Hours: By appointment (Email for appointment) Teaching Assistant TBA Office Hours: TBA Course Web Page Temporarily at Later it will be updated in 9/24/20093UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

4 Audience Those who want to learn to innovate in advancing services over future network systems Those with interest in Graduate school Those with top industrial positions in mind Microsoft, Google, Yahoo, Qualcomm, Akamai, IBM, Apple, etc. Those who want to have real hands-on expertise 9/24/20094UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

5 Main objectives To gain knowledge in networking and distributed systems Lectures, textbooks, and homework To understand where are we headed Study of latest research publications in the area Get to know how to build large scale network systems Programming projects From simple to novel ideas to reality translation To learn to innovate Through innovation project 9/24/20095UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

6 What we prefer not to do To teach basic programming Familiarity with Operating Systems is necessary Good programming skills with C/C++ is required To debug source codes that you write We might sometimes be of help, but not guaranteed 9/24/20096UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

7 Grading Plan 15% Homework Assignments and paper evaluations and write-up. 40% exams 15% midterm 25% final exam 40% Programming projects (2) 15%: Project 1: HTTP server 25%: Project II: Innovation project 5% Attendance and Class participation 9/24/20097UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

8 Paper evaluations and discussions Over the entire course 4 papers will be discussed Mostly from ACM SIGCOMM or other highly rated conferences An evaluation write-ups to be prepared (1-2 pages) per paper and submitted before their discussion 12 point font, one inch margin all sides, ACM single column style Points to be noted Important contribution of the paper Important limitations or errors (logical or technical, not typographical or grammatical) in the paper How it can further be improved (briefly) 9/24/20098UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

9 Course Projects Two projects for the entire course span Project 1 Build an HTTP server in C/C++ Team size: 2 Support both HTTP/1.0 and a subset of HTTP/1.1 Due date: TBA Project 2 Innovation Project (1 or 2 choices will be provided) You may choose your own project (provided they are novel and feasible within the time frame) Instructor approval required Innovation Projects are required to be presented in the class 10 minutes (6 minutes for presentation, 3 minutes for discussion, and 1 minute for conclusion) 9/24/20099UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

10 History of Internet 1960s-70s: Development of packet switching 1970s-80s: Early proprietary networks and internetworking 1980s-90s: Proliferation of networks 1990s-2000s: Explosion of the networks 2000-2010s: Internet as a major utility as well as threat 2010-beyond: Network Transformations to new forms 9/24/200910UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

11 The ARPANET (Internet) in 1969 LOG 9/24/200911UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

12 Host level graph Only a fraction! The Internet in 2005 Source: 9/24/200912UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

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16 Internet Growth Source: The Internet Society and 1977: 111 hosts on Internet 1981: 213 hosts 1983: 562 hosts 1984: 1,000 hosts 1986: 5,000 hosts 1987: 10,000 hosts 1989: 100,000 hosts 1992: 1,000,000 hosts 2001: 150 – 175 million hosts 2002: over 200 million hosts 2006: over 430 million hosts 2008: over 541 million hosts Jan 2009: over 625 million hosts 2010: ? 2011: ? 9/24/200916UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

17 Growth of the Internet The Internet Society, Google, and 9/24/200917UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

18 Growth and modern communications 50 million user population Radio: 38 years TV: 13 years The Internet: 4 years!!! (Once it was open to the Public,) Who did all these? 9/24/200918UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

19 Claude Shannon Published aA Mathematical Theory of Communication in 1948 In 1948 with the publication of A Mathematical Theory of Communication, Shannon characterized a channel by a single parameter; the channel capacity. And showed that it was possible to transmit information at any rate below capacity with an arbitrarily small probability of error. His method of proof was to show the existence of a single good code by averaging over all possible codes. His paper established fundamental limits on the efficiency of communication over noisy channels, and presented the challenge of finding families of codes that achieve capacity. The method of random coding does not produce an explicit example of a good code, and in fact it has taken fifty years for coding theorists to discover codes that come close to these fundamental limits on telephone line channels. Created the idea that all information could be represented using 1s and 0s. Called these fundamental units BITS. Created the concept data transmission in BITS per second. Widely credited as the Father of Information Theory. Source: and the Internet Society 9/24/200919UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

20 Leonard Kleinrock Kleinrock published his first paper on digital network communications, Information Flow in Large Communication Nets, in the RLE Quarterly Progress Report, in July, 1961. He developed his ideas further in his 1963 Ph.D. thesis, and then published a comprehensive analytical treatment of digital networks in his book Communication Nets in 1964. In 1966, Roberts joined the IPTO with a mandate to develop the ARPANET, and used Kleinrock's Communication Nets to help convince his colleagues that a wide area digital communication network was possible. In October, 1968, Roberts gave a contract to Kleinrock's NMC as the ideal group to perform ARPANET performance measurement and find areas for improvement. On a historical day in early September, 1969, a team at Kleinrock's NMC connected one of their SDS Sigma 7 computers to an Interface Message Processor, thereby becoming the first node on the ARPANET, and the first computer ever on the Internet. Source: Dr. Kleinrocks Homepage and the Internet Society 9/24/200920UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

21 Paul Baran In 1959 Paul Baran joined RAND and started working on survivable, wide area communications networks so they could reorganize and respond after a nuclear attack, diminishing the attractiveness of a first nuclear strike option by the Soviet Union. The results of which were first presented to the Air Force in the summer of 1961 as briefing B-265, then as a series of eleven comprehensive papers titled On Distributed Communications in 1964. Baran's study describes a remarkably detailed architecture for a distributed, survivable, packet switched communications network. The network is designed to withstand almost any degree of destruction to individual components without loss of end-to-end communications. Since each computer could be connected to one or more other computers, it was assumed that any link of the network could fail at any time, and the network therefore had no central control or administration. Baran's architecture was well designed to provide reliability and helped to convince the US Military that wide area digital computer networks were a promising technology. Source: and the Internet Society 9/24/200921UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

22 Lawrence Roberts Lawrence Roberts obtained his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees from MIT, and then joined the Lincoln Laboratory, where he carried out research into computer networks. In a pivotal meeting in November, 1964, Roberts met with J.C.R. Licklider, who inspired Roberts with his dream to build a wide area communications network. In February, 1965, the director of the IPTO, Ivan Sutherland, gave a contract to Roberts to develop a computer network. In July, Roberts gave a contract to Thomas Marill to program the network. In October, 1965, the Lincoln Labs TX-2 computer talked to their SDC's Q32 computer in one of the worlds first digital network communications. In October, 1966, Roberts and Marill published a paper titled Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers at the Fall AFIPS Conference, documenting their networking experiments. Also in 1966, DARPA head Charlie Hertzfeld promised IPTO Director Bob Taylor a million dollars to build a distributed communications network that would come to be called the ARPANET. In April, 1967, Roberts held an "ARPANET Design Session" at the IPTO Principal Investigator meeting in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The standards for identification and authentication of users, transmission of characters, and error checking and retransmission procedures were outlined at this meeting. Source: 9/24/200922UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

23 Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn In 1972, Vinton Cerf was a DARPA scientist at Stanford University and he joined Robert Kahn as Principal Investigator on a project to design the next generation networking protocol for the ARPANET. Cerf and Kahn drafted a paper describing their network design, titled "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection", in 1973 and then finalized and published in the IEEE Transactions of Communications Technology, in May, 1974. Cerf, Kahn, and Stanford graduate students Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine published the first technical specification of TCP/IP as an as RFC 675, in December, 1974. TCP is split into TCP and IP in 1978. Source: 9/24/200923UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

24 Tim Berners-Lee The inventor of HTML. Graduate of Oxford University, England, Tim is now with the Laboratory for Computer Science ( LCS)at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( MIT). In 1989 he invented the World Wide Web, an internet-based hypermedia initiative for global information sharing, while working at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory. Source: and The Internet Society. 9/24/200924UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

25 Mark Andreesen Marc Andreesen, National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois, identified that most browsers were designed for UNIX machines and were available only for academics. In 1992, Andreesen and Eric Bina, developed new browser Mosaic that let Images and text to appear on the same page A graphical interface with clickable buttons that let users navigate easily The hyper-link. In earlier browsers hypertext links had reference numbers that the user typed in to navigate to the linked document. Hyper-links allowed the user to simply click on a link to retrieve a document. In 1993, Mosaic made it to the front page of the New York Times business section saying an application program so different and so obviously useful that it can create a new industry from scratch. In mid-1994, Mosaic Communications Corp. was officially incorporated in Mountain View, California where he led the development of Netscape, the leading Internet browser for another decade. Source: and the Internet 9/24/200925UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

26 Innovations soon followed; the web indexing service; first web-based email service; transformed search service as one of the most important activity on the net; content distribution service as one of the key elements in the internet Peer-to-peer networks came to be as a novel alternative communication approach PlanetLab became a large scale world-wide overlay network testbed NSF started GENI (GENI.NET) Global Environment for Network Innovations for a future Internet 9/24/200926UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

27 1- 27 Cool internet appliances Worlds smallest web server IP picture frame Web-enabled toaster + weather forecaster Internet phones 9/24/2009

28 Introduction to the Internet What is the Internet? A network of networks Each network may be under an autonomous organization Network of a large number heterogeneous networks Wireless, fiber, copper, satellite, sensor, etc. From big super computers to tiny sensors Sometimes even human beings Assisted living as an inevitability A headless network formed by millions of heterogeneous devices No single administrative control is feasible High reliability and availability Highly vulnerable for security A giant network formed by Access networks (Network edge) Core Network (The backbone of the Internet) An important infrastructure for modern services E-commerce, E-governance, Telemedicine, assisted living, reliable distributed computing, and a host of other yet-to-be identified services 9/24/200928UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

29 1- 29 Whats the Internet: another nuts and bolts view millions of connected computing devices: hosts = end systems running network apps Home network Institutional network Mobile network Global ISP Regional ISP communication links fiber, copper, radio, satellite transmission rate = bandwidth routers: forward packets (chunks of data) 9/24/2009

30 UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09 1- 30 Whats the Internet: nuts and bolts view protocols control sending, receiving of msgs e.g., TCP, IP, HTTP, Skype, Ethernet Internet: network of networks loosely hierarchical public Internet versus private intranet Internet standards RFC: Request for comments IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force IEEE standards Home network Institutional network Mobile network Global ISP Regional ISP 9/24/2009

31 UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09 1- 31 Whats the Internet: a service view communication infrastructure enables distributed applications: Web, VoIP, email, games, e- commerce, file sharing communication services provided to apps: reliable data delivery from source to destination best effort (unreliable) data delivery Voice, video, radio application services E-commerce, telemedicine, internet information processing, distributed gaming, P2P file sharing, 9/24/2009

32 Communication requirements Some information (An idea) for eg., Hi Sufficient Energy to transmit (voice, or electrical energy) A medium to transmit Air, copper, fiber, RF spectrum etc. A network is a collection of media that are assembled in certain specific order or form to enable end-to-end communication A set of rules to make the communication meaningful Hi must be recognized with proper syntax and semantics Network protocols define the rules of communication over a network 9/24/200932UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

33 1- 33 Whats a protocol? human protocols: whats the time? I have a question introductions … specific msgs sent … specific actions taken when msgs received, or other events network protocols: machines rather than humans all communication activity in Internet governed by protocols Definition 1: protocols define format, order of msgs sent and received among network entities, and actions taken on msg transmission, receipt Definition 2: A communication protocol defines the rules that are associated with the syntax, semantics, and actions associated with messages and events that must be followed for effective communication between network devices. 9/24/2009

34 UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09 Whats a protocol? a human protocol and a computer network protocol: Q: Other human protocols? Hi Got the time? 2:00 TCP connection request TCP connection response Get time 9/24/2009

35 UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09 1- 35 A look at network structure: network edge: end hosts or devices access networks, physical media: wired, wireless communication links network core: interconnected routers network of networks 9/24/2009

36 The network edge: end systems (hosts): run application programs e.g. Web, email at edge of network client/server peer-peer client/server model client host requests, receives service from always-on server e.g. Web browser/server; email client/server peer-peer model: minimal (or no) use of dedicated servers e.g. Skype, BitTorrent Hybrid model: A combination of client-server and peer-to-peer model 9/24/200936UCSD CSE 124 Networked Services Fall09

37 Summary This course is about networking with focus on services More in later lectures

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