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Internet History CS 4244: Internet Programming Dr. Eli Tilevich.

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Presentation on theme: "Internet History CS 4244: Internet Programming Dr. Eli Tilevich."— Presentation transcript:

1 Internet History CS 4244: Internet Programming Dr. Eli Tilevich

2 US Science and Technology Policy in the Second Half of the 20 th Century Five decades of history: –The lessons of the Manhattan Project. –The 50s: Complacency. –October 4, 1957. NASA 1958 (D)ARPA 1958

3 Major Themes of Technological Progress The 60s: Networking (packet switching) The 70s: UNIX (Berkeley and AT&T) The 80s PC (IBM, Apple, Microsoft) –1979 3Com –1979 Novel –1981 SUN –1984 CISCO

4 Chapter 1 Introduction Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach Featuring the Internet, 3 rd edition. Jim Kurose, Keith Ross Addison-Wesley, July 2004. A note on the use of these ppt slides: Were making these slides freely available to all (faculty, students, readers). Theyre in PowerPoint form so you can add, modify, and delete slides (including this one) and slide content to suit your needs. They obviously represent a lot of work on our part. In return for use, we only ask the following: If you use these slides (e.g., in a class) in substantially unaltered form, that you mention their source (after all, wed like people to use our book!) If you post any slides in substantially unaltered form on a www site, that you note that they are adapted from (or perhaps identical to) our slides, and note our copyright of this material. Thanks and enjoy! JFK/KWR All material copyright 1996-2005 J.F Kurose and K.W. Ross, All Rights Reserved

5 Internet History 1961: Kleinrock - queueing theory shows effectiveness of packet-switching 1964: Baran - packet- switching in military nets 1967: ARPAnet conceived by Advanced Research Projects Agency 1969: first ARPAnet node operational 1972: –ARPAnet public demonstration –NCP (Network Control Protocol) first host-host protocol –first e-mail program –ARPAnet has 15 nodes 1961-1972: Early packet-switching principles

6 Internet History 1970: ALOHAnet satellite network in Hawaii 1974: Cerf and Kahn - architecture for interconnecting networks 1976: Ethernet at Xerox PARC late70s: proprietary architectures: DECnet, SNA, XNA late 70s: switching fixed length packets (ATM precursor) 1979: ARPAnet has 200 nodes Cerf and Kahns internetworking principles: –minimalism, autonomy - no internal changes required to interconnect networks –best effort service model –stateless routers –decentralized control define todays Internet architecture 1972-1980: Internetworking, new and proprietary nets

7 Internet History 1983: deployment of TCP/IP 1982: smtp e-mail protocol defined 1983: DNS defined for name-to-IP-address translation 1985: ftp protocol defined 1988: TCP congestion control new national networks: Csnet, BITnet, NSFnet, Minitel 100,000 hosts connected to confederation of networks 1980-1990: new protocols, a proliferation of networks

8 Internet History Early 1990s: ARPAnet decommissioned 1991: NSF lifts restrictions on commercial use of NSFnet (decommissioned, 1995) early 1990s: Web –hypertext [Bush 1945, Nelson 1960s] –HTML, HTTP: Berners-Lee –1994: Mosaic, later Netscape –late 1990s: commercialization of the Web Late 1990s – 2000s: more killer apps: instant messaging, P2P file sharing network security to forefront est. 50 million host, 100 million+ users backbone links running at Gbps 1990, 2000s: commercialization, the Web, new apps

9 Internet From the Networking Perspective Overview

10 Whats the Internet: nuts and bolts view millions of connected computing devices: hosts = end systems running network apps communication links –fiber, copper, radio, satellite –transmission rate = bandwidth routers: forward packets (chunks of data) local ISP company network regional ISP router workstation server mobile

11 Cool internet appliances Worlds smallest web server IP picture frame Web-enabled toaster + weather forecaster Internet phones

12 Whats the Internet: nuts and bolts view protocols control sending, receiving of msgs –e.g., TCP, IP, HTTP, FTP, PPP Internet: network of networks –loosely hierarchical –public Internet versus private intranet Internet standards –RFC: Request for comments –IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force local ISP company network regional ISP router workstation server mobile

13 Whats the Internet: a service view communication infrastructure enables distributed applications: –Web, email, games, e- commerce, file sharing communication services provided to apps: –Connectionless unreliable –connection-oriented reliable

14 A closer look at network structure: network edge: applications and hosts network core: –routers –network of networks access networks, physical media: communication links

15 The network edge: end systems (hosts): –run application programs –e.g. Web, email –at edge of network client/server model –client host requests, receives service from always-on server –e.g. Web browser/server; email client/server peer-peer model: – minimal (or no) use of dedicated servers –e.g. Gnutella, KaZaA, Skype

16 Network edge: connection-oriented service Goal: data transfer between end systems handshaking: setup (prepare for) data transfer ahead of time –Hello, hello back human protocol –set up state in two communicating hosts TCP - Transmission Control Protocol –Internets connection- oriented service TCP service [RFC 793] reliable, in-order byte- stream data transfer –loss: acknowledgements and retransmissions flow control: –sender wont overwhelm receiver congestion control: –senders slow down sending rate when network congested

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