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Motion

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**Event that involves a change in the position or location of something.**

Definition Event that involves a change in the position or location of something.

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Motion is Relative Relative – it is described compared to a REFERENCE POINT

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**Types of Motion Uniform motion - constant speed in a straight line**

Accelerated motion – motion that is changing in speed or direction Circular motion - speed is constant but the direction of motion is changing continuously

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**Scalar Quantities Show magnitude [amount] only**

Speed, time, temperature

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**Vector Quantities Show magnitude and direction**

Velocity, acceleration, force May be graphically represented Arrows

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**Speed Average Speed Comparison of time and distance**

A scalar quantity [magnitude only] Distance traveled per unit time S = d / t T = d / s D = s x t

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**Speed Instantaneous Speed**

Speed at any instant

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**Speed Constant Speed Speed that does not change**

Instantaneous speed that does not change

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Velocity Speed AND direction A vector quantity [magnitude & direction]

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**Acceleration A change in velocity Speeding up Slowing down**

Positive acceleration Slowing down Negative acceleration Deceleration Changing direction

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**Forces Pushes or pulls May cause acceleration [changes in motion]**

May also cause changes in shape

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**Balanced Forces All forces acting on an object are equal**

There is no motion

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**Unbalanced Forces All forces acting on an object are not equal**

One or more force is stronger than others Motion occurs

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**Net Force The sum of all forces acting on an object A net force of 0**

No motion A net force of more than 0 Motion occurs

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Resultant Another term for net force

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**Friction Force that slows down motion**

Air resistance creates friction in most situations

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**Gravity Force that attracts all objects toward each other**

More mass = more gravity Acceleration because of gravity is 9.8 m/s/s All objects accelerate at the same rate

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Newton's Laws Describe motion and changes in motion

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**First Law of Motion Law of inertia**

Objects at rest [not moving] will not begin to move until a force acts on them Objects in motion will not stop moving until a force acts on them Objects with more mass have more inertia Bigger objects are harder to start and stop

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**Second Law of Motion Law of acceleration**

A force is needed to change motion Objects accelerate in the direction of the force The more force applied, then more acceleration The more mass an object has, the more force is needed to accelerate the object

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**Third Law of Motion Law of action-reaction Forces occur in pairs**

The forces are equal and opposite One force is an action force The other force is a reaction force The forces act on different objects

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