Presentation on theme: "From Research to Writing Imagine that writing your paper is essentially like having a conversation about a problem in which you stating a claim, supporting."— Presentation transcript:
From Research to Writing Imagine that writing your paper is essentially like having a conversation about a problem in which you stating a claim, supporting it with evidence, and rebutting those who might doubt your claims and/or your evidence.
The Argument A: So, how do you think youll do this semester? (A asks question and raises a problem) B: I think Ill do better than I did last semester. (B makes a claim and implicitly solves the problem). A: Why do you think so? (A asks for evidence). B: Im finally taking courses in my major.(B offers evidence). A: Why will that make a difference? (A doesnt see why the evidence is valid). B: I do better when I take courses that interest me. (B offers a principle about courses and motivation that connects the claim to the evidence). A: But what about that statistics course you have to take? (A points to evidence that might counterbalance Bs evidence). B: I know I bombed calculus, but statistics is easier and now I have a tutor.(B acknowledges the contrary evidence, but rebuts it by offering more evidence). A: But wont you be taking five courses? (A raises another reservation. B: I know. It wont be easy. (A asks about the limits of Bs claim). A: Think youll make the Deans list? (A asks about the limits of Bs claim). B: I cant promise, but I think Ill do well. At least a 3.00, as long as I dont have to get a part-time job. (B limits the scope of the claim and then stipulates a condition that qualifies his confidence).
The Four Elements of the Argument Claim: your original statement of solution to your research question. Evidence: the information you found that backs your claim Warrant: a general principle that explains why you think your evidence is relevant Qualifications: reservations that make your claims and evidence more precise.
Claim and Evidence Claims and evidence are always explicit in your argument. -You have to take four years of English at MVHS. (claim). -Because you need four years of English to graduate. (evidence). The use of evidence to support a claim is common in nearly all kinds of conversation.
Warrants In less sophisticated kinds of conversation, warrants are mostly unnecessary –I can tell it rained last night (claim) because the streets are wet (evidence). It is generally accepted that, barring the presence of sprinklers, wet streets can be directly connected to rain.
Warrants, cont. In more sophisticated arguments, (i.e. your senior thesis), the connection between claim and evidence may need a principle to support the connection you are making because your audience may not believe the connection that you are making between your claim and your evidence. –You need to take four years of English at MVHS (claim) because you need for years to graduate (evidence). –WARRANT: Skill in written and oral communication is necessary for successful participation in any social organization or workplace.
Warrants, Pt. 3 HINT: If the connection between your claim and your evidence are generally accepted truths, then you have yet formulated a true research problem.