Page 3 Resilience in times of failing food systems Persistent hunger Depleting natural resources Interwoven and mutually reinforcing crises Failing to incorporate externalities Markets failures and price volatility Early warnings but failure of humanitarian and development responses Failing institutional responses INEQUALITIES in facing increasing RISKS
Page 4 Inequality is cause for increasing vulnerability
Page 5 Inequalities increase by crisis of support Contraction of public expenditures in 133 countries in 2012 (94 developing countries) Wage bill cuts or caps in 73 countries, reducing the salaries of public-sector workers who provide essential services to the population. Phasing-out subsidies (food, fuel, others) in 73 countries, despite record-high food prices in many regions. Cuts in social protection programs are under consideration in 55 countries, at a time when governments should be looking to scale up benefits VAT increases on basic goods and services that are consumed by the poor – that may further contract economic activity – in 71 countries (source : UNICEF, Ortiz & Cummins, 2013)
Page 7 Resilience-building based on equity and rights Poorer hurt subsequently : - rights denied and left behind in the run-up to the crises - most severely affected by crises - more vulnerable towards increasing risks - a few use power to reduce their own risks at the expense of more vulnerable - suffer most from reduction in government expenditures => equity and rights based resilience-building should focus on the structural causes of inequality that underlie the vulnerability and disproportionate risk and uncertainty faced by poor and marginalised people (especially vulnerable groups and women) rather than merely addressing the symptoms caused by the impacts of stresses and shocks.
Page 8 Resilience-building based on equity and rights Resilience as the ability of women, men and children to realise their rights and improve their wellbeing despite shocks, stresses and uncertainty. aspirational nature of being resilient enable the poor and marginalised to not only cope and survive, but also empower to transform challenges entrenched power and gender inequalities that perpetuate risks and vulnerabilities for certain people support the right to resources and capacities that people need to cope and even thrive within contexts of long-term change, volatility and unexpected shocks responsibility for governments and institutions to account for addressing both impacts and root causes => Return to normal (pre-crisis) is not a the solution
Page 10 Resilience strategies and Food Security Source : HLPE report on Social Protection and Food Security
Page 11 Integrated approach for resilient livelihoods Three pillars of Oxfam integrated program in Turkana, Kenya Livelihood promotion Poverty reduction by empowering pastoralists associations (bargaining power, enhancing skills, promote governments support) Social protection Public support to allow pastoralists to take risks, absord shocks and cope with chronic food insecurity Response to acute food insecurity in support of local economy Cash transfers to strengthen local market system, strengthen womens role and status
Page 12 Resilience policies addressing inequality Failures to Entitlements Food Security Resilience instruments Production Input subsidies Sustainable production methods, Agro-ecology Livestock and crop insurances Climate adaptation production methods Seed banks Strengthening smallholders knowledge systems Water schemes Land reform and secure access to productive resources Income and employment Public Work Programmes Social protection Floor policies Purchase for Progress Public Procurement Policies for Food Security Trade Food Subsidies Decreasing food dependancy Emergency reserves Integrated Food Reserves Policies Forward & Future Contracts Price Stabilisation Policies Transfers (un)conditional cash transfers Progressive tax system Supplementary feeding Public investments to strengthen domestic food systems Voice Collective bargaining Equitable Value Chains and Decent Work Targeting most vulnerable Addressing causes of inequity through empowering Vulnerable people as beneficiaries Human Rights norms and standards and gender equity Public Goods Early warning systems Strengthening local knowledge systems Integrated development programmes Public policies for access to health, education, credit…
Page 14 Resilience leading to tranformation of food system Source : Agricultural Transition, 2012
Page 15 Lessons learned Context sensitive (importance of good risk assessments) Convert uncertainties into risks (impact/probability) Manage the risks, not only the crises Essential role of public policies Twin-track strategies : essential assistance and protecting productive and natural resources Flexible mechanisms and quickly adaptable to shocks Rights-based approach non-discrimination and equality, participation, transparency and accountability Entails a transformation of food and agricultural systems by addressing root causes of risks and inequalities Inclusive and accountable governance
Page 17 Funding Social Protection Floor for LDC
Page 18 Key policy recommendations National governments : Increasing progressive tax revenues Strengthen inclusive participatory decision-making processes Invest in sectors that poor depend on for their livelihoods Upgrade Social Protection policies and access to essential services Address the specific gender vulnerability and inequality International actors : Support social movements in addressing increasing risks and inequality Addressing global risks in an ambitious, fair and sustainable way Strengthen international governance and accountability based on HR Insitute flexible long-term programming, adaptable to changing needs
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