Presentation on theme: "ENVIRONMENTAL DATA COLLECTION WITHIN THE BLACK SEA COMMISSION STATUS, CHALLENGES, SOLUTIONS Volodymyr Myroshnychenko, Project Expert Permanent Secretariat."— Presentation transcript:
ENVIRONMENTAL DATA COLLECTION WITHIN THE BLACK SEA COMMISSION STATUS, CHALLENGES, SOLUTIONS Volodymyr Myroshnychenko, Project Expert Permanent Secretariat Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution Black Sea OUTLOOK Conference Odessa, Ukraine November 1-4, 2011
Regional Environmental Problems Eutrophication/Nutrient Enrichment Chemical Pollution, including Oil Changes in Marine Living Resources, Overfishing Biodiversity Changes/Habitats Loss, including Alien Species Introduction Climate Change
Bucharest Convention In April 1992 six Black Sea countries (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey and Ukraine) signed and shortly thereafter ratified the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (Bucharest Convention) with its (three) integrated protocols. BulgariaGeorgiaRomaniaRussian Federation TurkeyUkraine
Protocols to the Convention 1.Protocol on the Protection of the Black Sea Marine Environment against Pollution from Land Based Sources (1992) 2.Protocol on Cooperation in combating pollution of the Black Sea Marine Environment by Oil and Other Harmful Substances (Emergency Protocol) 3.Protocol on the Protection of the Marine Environment Against Pollution by Dumping 4.Black Sea Biodiversity and Landscape Conservation Protocol 5.Protocol on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Black Sea from Land-Based Sources and Activities (2009)
Obligations of Contracting Parties General obligation: to prevent, reduce and control the pollution in the Black Sea in order to protect and preserve the marine environment and to provide legal framework for co-operation and concerted actions to fulfill this obligation. To protect the biodiversity and the marine living resources; To provide framework for scientific and technical co- operation and monitoring activities.
Obligations of Contracting Parties (2) In particular, to prevent pollution: by hazardous substances or matter; from hazardous wastes in transboundary movement and the illegal traffic thereof To prevent, reduce and control the pollution: from land-based sources; from vessels; resulting from emergency situations; by dumping; caused by or connected with activities on the continental shelf, including exploration and exploitation of natural resources; from or through the atmosphere;
The Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation and Protection of the Black Sea Signed on October 31, 1996 (commemorated as the Black Sea Day) Adopted by all Black Sea countries Updated in 2009 Ecosystem approach
SAP-1996: Assessment and monitoring of pollutants A Black Sea Monitoring System, based upon biological effects measurements and measurements of key contaminants, will be established in compliance with the Bucharest Convention. A State of Pollution of the Black Sea report will be prepared and published every five years, beginning It will be based on the data collected through the coordinated pollution monitoring and assessment programmes. Data regarding actual and assessed contaminant discharge measurements for point sources, rivers, and, where possible, diffuse sources, shall be compiled and freely exchanged beginning 2002 on an annual basis. It is advised that the Advisory Group Control of Pollution from Land Based Sources make these compilations in future. SAP-2009: Develop/improve the existing monitoring system to provide comparable data sets for pollutant loads (from direct discharges and river inputs) and for other parameters.
SAP Ecosystem Quality Objectives EcoQO 1 Preserve commercial marine living resources through: – Sustainable use of commercial fish stocks and other marine living resources – Restore/rehabilitate stocks of commercial marine living resources EcoQO 2 Conservation of Black Sea Biodiversity and Habitats through: – Reduce the risk of extinction of threatened species – Conserve coastal and marine habitats and landscapes – Reduce and manage human mediated species introductions EcoQO 3 Reduce eutrophication through: Reduce nutrients originating from land based sources, including atmospheric emissions. EcoQO 4. Ensure Good Water Quality for Human Health, Recreational Use and Aquatic Biota through: Reduce pollutants originating from land based sources, including atmospheric emissions. Reduce pollutants originating from shipping activities and offshore installations
SAP Ecosystem Quality Objectives EcoQO 3 Reduce eutrophication through: – Reduce nutrients originating from land based sources, including atmospheric emissions EcoQO 4. Ensure Good Water Quality for Human Health, Recreational Use and Aquatic Biota through: – Reduce pollutants originating from land based sources, including atmospheric emissions. – Reduce pollutants originating from shipping activities and offshore installations
Black Sea Commission Intergovernmental body for promoting the implementation of the provisions of Bucharest Convention, its protocols and Strategic Action Plan The regional focal point for any aspects of the coastal and marine environment of the Black Sea Made up of 6 Commissioners (one for each coastal country) and a chairman` Chairmanship for one year and rotates between coastal countries
SAP implementation Conducted by countries Regional monitoring program Annual reporting to BSC Periodical assessment (5 years) – State of Environment Report – Assessment of SAP implementation and SAP revision
Black Sea Integrated Monitoring and Assessment Programme (BSIMAP) Implemented since Build on established national monitoring programmes Operational Last version of BSIMAP was adopted in 2006.
BSIMAP Goals The main purpose of the BSIMAP is to provide data for the state of the environment (SOE) reporting, impact assessments of major pollutant sources, and for transboundary diagnostic analysis (TDA). BSIMAP seeks to maximize the use of historical data from previously established monitoring sites for trend analysis, supported by new additional sites to improve the assessment of the current chemical/ecological status of the Black Sea. The sites, parameters and monitoring frequencies also reflect data requirements for compliance with relevant national and international legislation and agreements.
BSIMAP Pollution Monitoring Network
Monitoring network: spatial coverage Territorial waters Pollution Hot Spots Sampling Sites Coastline (km) Average distance (km) represented per sampling site Bulgaria Georgia Romania5 21 (9 transects) Russian Federation Turkey10 63 (21 transects) Ukraine
National institutions involved BulgariaRegional laboratories in Varna and Burgas Georgia Environment Pollution Monitoring Department, MoEP Romania National Institute for Marine Research & Development; Water Directorate Dobrogea Litoral – Constanta Russian Federation Socchi Hydrometeorological Centre, Tuapse Roshydromet Monitoring Laboratory, Southern Branch of SIO RAS TurkeyMoEF, Istanbul University Ukraine UkrSCES, State Ecological Inspection of the North-West region of the Black Sea (MENR)
BSIMAP monitoring requirements (1) Sampling media: water Parameters: nutrients, oxygen, physical & chemical parameters, petroleum hydrocarbons, suspended solids Frequency: 4 times per year Sampling media: sediments Parameters: organic contaminants, heavy metals Frequency: 1 time per year Sampling media: biota Parameters: organic contaminants, heavy metals Frequency: 1 time per year
BSIMAP monitoring requirements (1) Problem: Eutrophication. Sampling media: Water Mandatory parametersFrequencyOptional parametersFrequency T°4pH (site-specific) Salinity4BOD5 (site-specific) O2 (saturation and dissolved)4TOC4 TSS (filter 0.45 µm)4H2S4 Secchi4 P (PO4)4 P total4 N (NH4)4 N (NO3)4 N (NO2)4 N, Total4 SiO44
BSIMAP monitoring requirements (2) Problem: Pollution. Sampling media: Water Mandatory parametersFrequencyOptional parametersFrequency Oil pollution TPH ( Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons )4Oil slicks Heavy Metals Cd1 Fe Cu1 Zn Hg1 Cr, Co Pb1 Mn, Ni Pesticides, Phenols Detergents PAHs, PCBs 137 Cs, 90 Sr, Tr
BSIMAP monitoring requirements (3) Problem: Pollution. Sampling media: Sediments Mandatory parametersFrequencyOptional parameters Particle size 1 Granulometry Description of BS 1 Calcination losses Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb 1 Al, Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn DDT, DDD, DDE 1 TOC Lindane 1 P total PCBs 1 Phenols Hydrocarbons Total Cs, 90 Sr PAHs 1 Total radioactivity
BSIMAP monitoring requirements (2) Problem: response of biodiversity on pollution and destruction of habitats Mandatory parametersFrequency Chl a 4 Phytoplankton 4 Mesozooplankton 4 Biomass of Noctiluca 4 Macrophytobenthos 1 Macrozoobenthos 1 Fish landing (annually) 1 Fish stocks (optional, annually) 1
Chemical pollution Mean concentrations of selected parameters in sediments of the Black Sea, (TDA 2007)
Monitoring of pressures: BSIMAP LBS component Complementary to the Pollution Monitoring, the BSIMAP LBS component includes monitoring of pollution loads from LBS, including: River discharges Industrial discharges Municipal (WWTP) discharges The emphasis is given to the Pollution Hot Spots.
Parameters BOD5 Total Nitrogen (TN) Total Phosphorus (TP) Total Suspended Solids (TSS) Flow (Q) Heavy metals Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Reporting Who: National Focal Points / Members of Advisory Groups What: Different parameters of the Black Sea ecosystem state, pressures, impacts, measures, changes in legislation/policy, programs, investments, etc. 1.PMA (pollution in water, sediments, biota) 2.LBS (pollution loads) 3.CBD (phyto- and zoo-plankton, conservation status…) 4.ESAS (ship traffic, oil spilled during accidents, fines…) 5.ICZM (state of the coast and management) 6.FOMLR (stocks, landings, fishing fleet, measures…) When: annually (in Autumn), data for previous year How: in standardized formats
Data flow Implementing agencies and laboratories National ministries and agencies BSC focal points BSC PS BSIS (Black Sea Information System) Users: scientists, decision-makers, public Standardized format
Usage of monitoring data & information State of Environment reporting (SoE) Transboundary diagnostic analysis Impact assessments of major pollutant sources Assesment of SAP implementation and SAP revision Monitoring data & information BSIS GIS, mapping Trend analysis
Analysis of official data reporting Source: Diagnostic Report to guide improvements to the regular reporting process on the state of the Black Sea environment
Suitability of data for calculating indicators Indicator group Indicators/ParametersIn BSIS Outside BSIS Eutrophication NutrientsYY Chl-a (in-situ)limitedY TransparencylimitedY Hypoxia (dis. oxygen)YY Alga bloomsYY Macroalgaelimited Contamination Concentrations in sea waterYY -:- in biotalimited- -:- in sedimentslimited- Biological effects not considered yet - Biodiversity Species composition (zooplankton, phytoplankton, benthos, fish, seagrass)limitedY Population abundance & biomasslimitedY Non-indigenous speciesYY Source: Diagnostic Report to guide improvements to the regular reporting process on the state of the Black Sea environment Insufficient time-series data in BSIS for trend analysis
Reasons for data gaps (1) Mandatory parameters of BSIMAP are often not covered Recommended frequency of observations is not always observed Gaps in countries monitoring programs: the monitoring is mainly not integrated Different approach in assessment of environmental status Pure coordination between responsible authorities Insufficient financial support of monitoring
Reasons for data gaps (2) Gaps in data availability (i.e. data have not been collected due to some reasons) Gaps in data reporting (i.e. data are available in the country but due to lack of inter-agency coordination did not became available to AG members for including in reports) Besides, the Focal Points have no dedicated time in their ToRs officially to work for the BSC
Suitability of data for calculating indicators Indicator group Indicators/ParametersIn BSIS Outside BSIS Eutrophication NutrientsYY Chl-a (in-situ)limitedY TransparencylimitedY Hypoxia (dis. oxygen)YY Alga bloomsYY Macroalgaelimited Contamination Concentrations in sea waterYY -:- in biotalimited- -:- in sedimentslimited- Biological effects not considered yet - Biodiversity Species composition (zooplankton, phytoplankton, benthos, fish, seagrass)limitedY Population abundance & biomasslimitedY Non-indigenous speciesYY Time-series data in for trend analysis limitedY
SOLUTIONS AND TARGETS
Improvement of monitoring Strengthening of existing program: mandatory parameters covered, monitoring frequencies observed Further harmonization of monitoring program: – Meet requirement of new SAP and LBS protocol, – Coherence with MSFD and WFD – Common understanding of Good Environmental Status (GES) and indicators – Further development of guidelines, inter-comparison exercises, etc. Proper geographical coverage, networks development Sustain stations and transects with long-terms observations Sustainable quality control and assurance
Utilizing capacities of all marine organizations in the Region BSIMAP Monitoring Institutions Marine Organizations in the Black Sea region* *Black Sea Scene website The network of reporting institutions in the Black Sea should be further developed
Utilizing capacities of data exchange networks – BlackSeaScene SeaDataNet standards of interoperability 34 data providers ~160,000 measurements > 40 data categories Water column temperature and salinity Dissolved gases33659 Nutrients25468 Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus All Nutrients Nutrients for period (2725)
Utilizing capacities of data exchange networks – EMODNet EMODNet – European Marine Observation and Data Network Preparatory Actions: Hydrography 1 Geology Chemistry 1,2 Biology 2 Habitats New portal: Physical Parameters 1,2 ___________________________________________________ 1 Based on SeaDataNet standards of interoperability 2 Includes Black Sea
Recommendations for improving data management within BSC The regional data base (BSIS) should become fully operational on-line, GIS-enabled, interoperable and linked with other marine/environmental data and information networks (EMODNET, BlackSeaScene etc) The work carried out within the BSIMAP should become transparent through renewed BSIS BSIS should be proposed as the permanent domain for any data in the region produced by projects Data policy should be developed and sustained by the BSC in relation to major data-holders in the Black Sea region
Steps undertaken The regional Mnemiopsis Database hosted by BSC PS is part of the BlackSeaScene infrastructure since 2010 The interoperable GIS enabled Regional Pollution Data Base is being developed in framework of the Baltic2Black* project by the RAC PMA The MONINFO system based on OGC interoperability standards (WMS, WFS…) for sharing spatial data * Baltic2Black is a joint BSC+HELCOM project financed by DG Environment
Further data need For wider assessments (sensu MSFD, Annex III) BSIS has to be extended with data on: physical oceanography; sedimentology; marine geology; erosion, etc.
Further data needs (2) Due to large catchment area as compared to its own area, the Black Sea is very vulnerable to pressure from land based human activities and its health is equally dependent from the coastal and non-coastal states of its basin. Due to the same reason Black Sea is vulnerable to climate change. Black Sea catchment Identifications of drivers of pressures on the Black Sea environment from LBSA requires knowledge on processes in watershed this require cooperation and data exchange with relevant programs and projects: ICPDR, SEIS, EnviroGRIDS.
Accessibility to all available data and information is a priority issue
State of Environment Report 2006/7 More than 60 scientists involved 12 chapters addressed to different environmental problems as well as socio-economic pressures and impact Last chapter – overall assessment of the state of the Black Sea Ecosystem