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ELFE2 0909141 On ICT in education: some perspectives Tjeerd Plomp (professor emeritus) University of Twente Enschede, the Netherlands Bled (Slv), 14-15.

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Presentation on theme: "ELFE2 0909141 On ICT in education: some perspectives Tjeerd Plomp (professor emeritus) University of Twente Enschede, the Netherlands Bled (Slv), 14-15."— Presentation transcript:

1 ELFE On ICT in education: some perspectives Tjeerd Plomp (professor emeritus) University of Twente Enschede, the Netherlands Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

2 ELFE Some conclusions ELFE1 ICT in education offers opportunities for: -More up-to-date information -Cross-curricular skills -Independent learning & working -Teaching according to each students need and resources available -Teamwork among both teachers and students Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

3 ELFE Some conclusions ELFE1 Also some risks of ICT in education mentioned: -Focus on surface in stead of depth -Copying from Web and other students -Students left alone in front of screen -Less focus on oral, writing and analysis skills -Increased workload both for teachers and students Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

4 ELFE Some general wisdom ICT is means, not goal in itself Our society has transformed from an industrial society into an information or knowledge society => Has consequences for education and for how schools function and teachers teach In 21 st century our perception of what is good education has to change – this pertains to all components of the teaching-learning (T/L) process Conference November2005 ELFE

5 ELFE Did you know? 3.0 – 2009 Edition (YouTube) The projected top ten in demand jobs in 2010 did not exist in 2004 (US Secr o Educ) we are currently preparing students for jobs that do not exist, where they will use technologies that havent been invented yet to solve problems we dont even know are problems yet Reported bout Google that: in 2006 up to 2.7billion searches/month now: 31 billion searches/month! Conference November2005 ELFE

6 ELFE This presentation: 1. Importance of curricular perspective 2. Education in 21st century 3. International/global initiatives 4. Some research findings (such as from SITES 2006 study) 5. Concluding comments Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

7 ELFE Curricular perspective Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2 content studentteacher learning process materials & infra structure aims and c n s u l o c o a c h i n g t n e m e g n a a m p l a n n i n t i n g g Learning: interaction between actors and goals of education

8 ELFE Components of a curriculum Conference November2005 ELFE Rationale/vision Aims-objectives Content Learning activities Teacher role Materials & resources Grouping Location Time Assessment Metaphor of spiderweb: it is as strong as its weakest axe (Van den Akker)!

9 ELFE The Curriculum Spiderweb Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2 Rationale Content Teacher role Materials & Resources Grouping Location Time Assessment Aims & Objectives Learning activities

10 ELFE Curriculum perspective Sources: student – subject - society Knowledge economy – Information society: Knowledge no longer primarily knowing facts and theories and being able to reproduce them (old knowledge – reproductive skills) BUT: ability to find relevant data and to derive meaning from it (lifelong learning skills) (new knowledge – productive skills)

11 ELFE Lifelong learning skills: In new circumstances, being able to generate and evaluate answers to open, non-standardized questions, to set own learning goals, to plan and regulate own learning to evaluate own progress Need for analytical, creative and synthesizing skills

12 ELFE st Century skills (ATC21Skills project) I. Ways of thinking 1.Creativity and Innovation 2.Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, Decision Making 3.Learning to Learn II. Ways of working 4. Communication 5. Collaboration (Teamwork)

13 ELFE st Century skills (ATC21Skills project) III. Tools for working 6. Information Literacy (includes research) 7. ICT Literacy IV. Living in the world 8. Citizenship – Local and Global 9. Life and Career 10. Personal & Social Responsibility – incl. Cultural Awareness and Competence

14 ELFE Implications for education : - Other balance needed between old and new - enable learners to become more active and make them more responsible for arranging their own learning process - teachers becoming more professional coaches

15 ELFE Emerging pedagogical practices for information society (Voogt & Pelgrum, 2003) 1.New goals: students become competent in information management, communication, and collaboration, and metacognition. 2.Less structured sources of information as learning materials. 3.Traditional boundaries between subjects to be bridged

16 ELFE Emerging pedagogical practices for information society ( contd ) 4. Gap between discipline-related knowledge taught in schools and application of knowledge in real life to be bridged 5. Boundaries between the school and outside world need to fade. => More focus on needs of individual learners => Other ways of assessment: more open, more formative

17 ELFE Obvious role of ICT in realizing new vision on teaching and learning: - as a general tool (e.g. word processing), - as digital learning resources (e.g. tutorials, simulations, web-based materials, digital encyclopedia, etc), - as network and communication tools (e.g. internet browser, software), -as digital tools (e.g. microcomputer based laboratories, statistical tools, accounting- bookkeeping software) - as production tools

18 ELFE No neglect of old knowledge: what has traditionally been valued as important knowledge and skills BUT schools should reflect a good balance between what is traditionally valued and what is considered important in the information society.

19 ELFE Possible shifts in pedagogy (adapted from Pelgrum et al., 1997; Pelgrum, 2001) LessMore School Isolated from societyIntegrated in society Most information on school functioning confidential Information openly available Teacher Initiator of instructionHelps students find appropriate instruct path Whole class teachingGuides students independent learning Evaluates studentHelps student to evaluate own progress Places low emphasis on communication skills Places high emphasis on communication skills

20 ELFE Possible shifts in pedagogy (contd) (adapted from Kozma et al., 1999) LessMore Student Mostly passiveMore active Learns at schoolLearns also outside school Hardly any teamworkMuch teamwork Takes questions from books or teachers Asks questions OR generates them (projects) Learns answers to questions Finds answers to questions Learning outcomes Emphasis on reproductive skills Emphasis on productive skills

21 ELFE Change perspective From study ELFE 1: Policies on pedagogical innovation using ICT often only partially implemented! Fullan (2007): Real innovation is multi-dimensional

22 ELFE Dimensions of innovation/change: (1)new materials: e.g. computers, educational software, open source materials, etc, (2)new teaching approaches: e.g. students working more independent of the teachers, often in small groups on projects with the teacher in a different role (3)new beliefs about what is good education: e.g. assumptions about what should be taught and about what are appropriate methods.

23 ELFE Change is process, not an event! -Not reasonable to expect schools and teachers to change at a point in time -Schools may introduce step-by-step new elements in their curriculum and pedagogical approaches -Different schools may decide for different emphases and priorities! There are many ways leading to Rome

24 ELFE International/global initiatives Three projects (i) Assessment and teaching of 21st Century skills (ii) EU - Indicators of ICT in Education (IIE) (iii) USA / International Experiences with Technology in Education (IETE) Also one conference: (iv) EDUsummIT Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

25 ELFE (i) Assessment and teaching of 21st Century skills Multi-stake collaboration: -Natl Educ Depts & Minitries of AUS, FIN, POR, SIN, UK (founding countries) -Intrntl assessment agencies: OECD, IEA -Intrntl researchers headed by Barry McGaw (UoMelbourne, AUS) -Corporations Cisco – Intel – Microsoft Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

26 ELFE (i) Assessment and teaching of 21st Century skills Why? - Profound economic and social changes require new skills - Many initiatives have focused these 21st Century skills BUT: Lack connection between 21st C classroom practices and national and international assessments. Growing consensus on what 21st C skills are but little agreement on measurable definitions. There are many methodological and technological issues that need to be addressed. Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

27 ELFE (i) Assessment and teaching of 21st Century skills Targeting on following skills (considered critical to individual economic success and important to effective functioning at the personal and societal levels): Creativity and innovation Critical thinking Problem solving Communication Collaboration Information fluency Technological literacy Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

28 ELFE (i) Assessment and teaching of 21st Century skills Indicators of success Acceptance, recognition, and participation by stakeholders Problems identified, solutions developed, and widely available. ICT-based assessment of 21st C skills incorporated into national and international assessments. Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

29 ELFE (i) Assessment and teaching of 21st Century skills Final report: August 2011 For information: Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

30 ELFE (ii) EU - Indicators of ICT in Education (IIE) Purpose/Goals: To identify a set of indicators that are relevant for enabling the regular monitoring of the use and impact of ICT in primary and secondary education. To describe scenarios for monitoring ICT in Education in the European Union. Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

31 ELFE (ii) EU - Indicators of ICT in Education (IIE) Main products: Policy issues and concepts Available and needed indicators Proposal core indicators & priorities! Statistical overviews Scenarios for EU ICT monitoring Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

32 ELFE (ii) EU - Indicators of ICT in Education (IIE) Proposed categories of indicators: 1.Infrastructure 2.Curriculum & content (including pedag approaches, assessment) 3. Outcomes and attitudes (e.g. competencies, digital literacy) 4. School leadership (e.g. change management) Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

33 ELFE (ii) EU - Indicators of ICT in Education (IIE) Proposed categories of indicators (contd): 5. Connectedness (e.g. natl/internatl cooperation, public-private partnerships) 6.Teacher training (e.g. teacher competencies, pedag drivers license) 7. Support (e.g. way and extent of technical and/or pedagogical support) 8. Transversal issues (e.g. equity, safety, financing) Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

34 ELFE (ii) EU - Indicators of ICT in Education (IIE) Not much available for outcomes Many indicators for conditional factors Final report: October 2009 Project director: Hans Pelgrum Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

35 ELFE (iii) Internatl Experiences with Technology in Education (IETE) USA initiated, but similar to EU-project Research questions : What international ICT indicators are currently being collected? –What are limitations of these data? What progress has been made in measuring ICT impacts on teachers, instruction, and learning? Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

36 ELFE (iii) Internatl Experiences with Technology in Education (IETE) Research questions (contd): : What policies and systems are in place to guide effective ICT investments? What set of indicators will be most informative for policy and feasible to collect on ongoing basis? What partnerships and data collection methods will be required to make possible an annual compendium? Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

37 ELFE (iii) Internatl Experiences with Technology in Education (IETE) High-priority areas: Improving student learning through enhanced instruction Increasing teacher capacity to teach Data systems to support continuous improvement Project: identify gaps and needed indicators Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

38 ELFE (iii) Internatl Experiences with Technology in Education (IETE ) Survey of Ministries of Education of 24 highest productivity countries No new data collections Final report: August Country profiles -Recommendations for annual compendium For more information: Bob Kozma Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

39 ELFE Few conclusions on projects: -It is good to have - apart from national initiatives - a number of international/global projects -21st century skills linked with ICT: not only to teach, but also to assess -EU and USA project on indicators for ICT in education talk to each other and will suggest clients to communicate => one common set of indicators Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

40 ELFE EDUsummIT International Summit on the Future of ICT in Education: A Call to Action The Hague (Netherlands) - June, 2009 Researchers, policy makers and practitioners discussing summary of years of research on ICT in education compiled in International Handbook on ICT in Primary and Secondary Education (Joke Voogt & Gerald Knezek, Eds) Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

41 ELFE EDUsummIT From Call to Action (amongst others): (see To better understand student technology experiences in informal learning environments, in order to inform work in formal settings To develop new assessments designed to measure outcomes from technology enriched learning experiences Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

42 ELFE EDUsummIT From Call to Action (contd): To develop and use distributed leadership models for technology use in schools and teacher education programs To develop and use models for teacher learning on technology use in schools and classrooms at the pre- and in- service levels Also: attention for the needs of developing countries Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

43 ELFE Research (1) - SITES 2006: survey of pedagogical practices and the use of ICT in it. Survey of -Schools (principals and IT coordinators) -Math & Science teachers. Grade 8 is target grade. Random selection of 400 schools and (in principle) per school 2 math and 2 science teachers SITES 2006

44 ELFE Research questions 1.What are the pedagogical practices adopted in schools and how is ICT used in them? 2.What ICT is used and how is it used in specific situations where ICT has been employed relatively extensively within a pedagogical practice 3.What teacher, school, community and system factors are associated with different pedagogical practices and ICT-use? SITES 2006

45 ELFE Conceptual framework SITES 2006

46 ELFE Participating education systems SITES 2006 Alberta, Canada Catalonia, Spain Chile Chinese Taipei Denmark Estonia Finland France Hong Kong SAR Israel Italy Japan Lithuania Moscow, Russian Fed Norway Ontario, Canada Russian Federation Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia South Africa Thailand

47 ELFE Pedagogical orientations Traditional orientation: focus on content goals typically the teacher plays the main role as instructor and assessor in the learning process the students follow instructions and work on assigned close-ended tasks SITES 2006

48 ELFE Pedagogical orientations Lifelong learning orientation: Typically require students to work in teams on open ended real world problems Emphasis on developing problem solving, collaborative and organizational skills Students play an active role in identifying the learning problem as well as how to tackle it The teacher plays a facilitative role in the learning process SITES 2006

49 ELFE Pedagogical orientations Connectedness orientation: Provide opportunities for students to learn from local and/or international experts Provide opportunities for students to work and learn with peers in other schools, which may be located in the neighborhood or in distant locations Provide opportunities for students to develop global understanding & cultural sensitivity through collaborating with students from other countries SITES 2006

50 ELFE SITES Pendulum swing Change in presence of lifelong learning approaches in schools as reported by principals:

51 ELFE Pendulum swing - Denmark Bryderup, Larson & Trentel (2009): policy: considerable increase in control of what is learnt in compulsory school: goals per subject per grade level -2006: introd of natl tests for subject skills and knowledge => in school culture with increased focus on assessment => support traditional paradigm -in spite of the fact that the teachers in 2006 claimed to subscribe to aims and values equally related to the two paradigms, the traditional paradigm was dominant in the actual teaching and learning. Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

52 ELFE Pendulum swing - Denmark Bryderup, Larson & Trentel (2009): Case of DEN illustrates that use of ICT does not automatically foster a paradigm in line with the needs of the knowledge society. Especially if the system level environment induces other forces. Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

53 ELFE Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

54 ELFE SITES 2006 Teachers use of ICT LOw vs HIgh proportion of MAth teachers -LOMA countries: TWN, JPN, SLV -HIMA countries: CAN-Ont, CHL, CAN-Alb Research question (Pelgrum & Voogt, 2009): How do HIMA and LOMA countries differ on (i) characteristics of change (pedag approach, lifelong learning competencies) (ii) teacher and school level factors affecting implementation of ICT? Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

55 ELFE SITES 2006 Teachers use of ICT Findings Pelgrum & Voogt (2009): In HIMA more then in LOMA countries: -Math teachers apply learner-centred approach and -focus on lifelong learning competencies -School leaders stimulate more active use of ICT and -encourage teachers to apply new ways of teaching and learning Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

56 ELFE SITES 2006 Teachers use of ICT Findings Pelgrum & Voogt (2009): School-level factors influencing ICT use: 1. active communication, 2. school leadership development, 3. assessment orientation, 4. ICT use by school leaders and 5. bottom-up change orientation. Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

57 ELFE SITES : International report SITES 2006 study

58 ELFE Research (2) Personal entrepreneurship of teachers (PET) 2 nd analysis of ICT monitor (survey) among Dutch primary teacher educators (Drent, 2005): What factors influenced innovative use of ICT by teacher educators? Exploratory study Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

59 ELFE Personal entrepreneurship of teachers innovative use of ICT: Scale of 5 items (Cronbachs α =.61): -Information gathering -Data processing -Presenting -Introducing of new subject -Problem solving Represents growth in use of ICT! Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

60 ELFE Personal entrepreneurship of teachers Important factors (from PLS analysis) influencing innovative use of ICT: 1.Student oriented pedagogy 2.Positive attitude towards ICT 3.Years of computer experience 4.Personal entrepreneurship -#3 and #4 strongest influence Note: ICT knowledge/skills no direct influence, but via other factors Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

61 ELFE Personal entrepreneurship of teachers Based on two manifest variables: -communication/interaction: degree of having contacts with colleagues (inside/outside) about use of ICT -utilizing professional network: # of organizations/persons from which teacher educator gets support in using ICT amount of contacts (inside/outside) initiated by teacher educator for own professional development in pedagogical use of ICT Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

62 ELFE Personal entrepreneurship of teachers - Has direct influence on innovative use of ICT Also indirect influence, as PET has direct influence on other important factors: -ICT attitude -Pedagogical approach -ICT competence Metaphor of a system of seizing cogwheels: if one cogwheel moves, the others will also start moving! Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

63 ELFE Personal entrepreneurship of teachers NOTE: PET is directly influenced by internal support structure: -support from management, -availability of pedag and technical support So: the schools support and the schools stimulation of personal entrepreneurship can make an important contribution to the realisation of innovative use of ICT. Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

64 ELFE Profile of teacher educator using ICT in innovative way (Drent, 2005; Drent & Meelissen, 2008): Capable of keeping contacts with colleagues and experts on ICT for sake of own professional development Sees and experiences advantages of innovative use of ICT in own teaching Has a student-oriented pedagogical approach Has ICT competencies complying with #3 Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

65 ELFE Concluding comments -Education nowadays has to pay attention to 21st century skills – balance between old and new needed! -Curriculum perspective essential (see spiderweb) -ICT use alone does not lead to other education -The research discussed shows the relevance of certain school and teacher factors Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

66 ELFE Concluding comments (cont) => National policies need to reflect these points and to encourage schools to be of our time! Further: -Link in discussions about ICT the use/integration with a pedagogical model – patterns of ICT use -Crucial role of school leaders and teachers to realise 21st C education => Professional development of both Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

67 ELFE Concluding comments (cont) => National policies need to reflect these points and to encourage schools to be of our time! Further: -Link in discussions about ICT the use/integration with a pedagogical model – patterns of ICT use -Crucial role of school leaders and teachers to realise 21st C education => Professional development of both Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

68 ELFE Model for pedagogical use of ICT in schools (ICTOS, 2006) Collaboration & support (both technical & pedagogical) LeadershipLeadership VisionKnowldg, skills & attitudes Software / Content ICT- infrastr Pedagogical use of ICT for learning

69 ELFE Finally: change is a process Balance needed between top down and bottom up Top down: direction + facilitation Bottom up: space for entrepreneurship Process of: new that gets a place in balance with the old! This needs to be reflected at both levels: system and school Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

70 ELFE Finally: change is a process Process of new that gets a place in balance with the old! This needs to be reflected at both levels: system and school Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2 care for existing courage for new time Amount of resources

71 ELFE Thank you!

72 ELFE Some references: Bryderup, I.M, Larson, A. & Trentel, M.Q. (September 2009). ICT- use, educational policy and changes in pedagogical paradigms in compulsory education in Denmark. Education and Information Technology, 14 (3) Drent, M., (2005). In transitie: op weg naar innovatief ICT-gebruik op de PABO. (In transition: on the road to innovative use of ICT in teacher education). Enschede (Netherlands): Doctoral dissertation, University of Twente. Drent, M. & Meelissen, M. (2008). Which factors obstruct or stimulate teacher educators to use ICT innovatively. Computers & Education, 51, 187–199. Fullan, M., (2007, 4th ed). The Meaning of Educational Change. London: Cassell Educational Limited. ICTOS (ICT op school) (2006). Dutch ICT-tools for a balanced use of ICT in the Netherlands. The Hague: Kennisnet ICT op school. URL: Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

73 ELFE Some references: Law, N.,Pelgrum, W.J. & Plomp, T. (2008). Pedagogy and ICT use in schools around the world – Findings from the IEA SITES 2006 study. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong; also: Springer Pelgtum, W.J. (2001). Obstacles to the integration of ICT in education: results from a worldwide educational assessment. Computers & Education,37,pp Pelgrum, W. J., ten Brummelhuis, A. C. A., Collis, B. A., Plomp, T. J., & Janssen Reinen, I. A. M. (1997). The application of multimedia technologies in schools: technology assessment of multimedia systems for pre-primary and primary schools. Luxembourg: European Parliament, Directorate General for Research. Pelgrum, W.J. & Voogt, J. (September 2009). School and teacher factors associated with frequency of ICT use by mathematics teachers: country comparisons. Education and Information Technology, 14 (3) Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2

74 ELFE Some references (contd): Voogt.J. & Knezek, G. (Eds) (2008).International Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education. Springer Science. Voogt, J.M. & Pelgrum, W.J., (2003). ICT and the curriculum. In R.B. Kozma (Ed.): Technology, innovation and educational change: a global perspective. A report of the IEA Second Information Technology in Education Study – Module 2. Eugene (OR, USA): International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). Van den Akker, J. (2003). Curriculum perspectives: an introduction. In: J. van den Akker, U. Hameyer, & W. Kuiper, (Eds.). Curriculum landscapes and trends. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp Bled (Slv), September 2009 ELFE2


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