Presentation on theme: "A UNESCO Workshop ICT, Education Transformation, and"— Presentation transcript:
1 A UNESCO Workshop ICT, Education Transformation, and Economic and Social DevelopmentDr. Robert Kozma | April 2011 | Montevideo UruguayA UNESCO Workshop
2 The Rhetoric for ICT in Education Many countries justify the use of ICT in schools by saying it will help create an information economy or knowledge society:Singapore’s The third Masterplan “continues the vision of the first and second Materplans to enrich and transform the learning environments of our students and equip them with the critical competencies and dispositions to succeed in a knowledge economy”Jordan’s ICT-based reform effort was to make the education sector “responsive to employment market demands in key industries and develop critical ‘Knowledge Economy skills’ at all levels of the education system”Tech/NA, Namibia’s education ICT initiative, states that “Arising from the overall capacity building investments, Namibia will be transformed into a knowledge-based society.”Rwanda’s ICT in Education Strategic Plan envisions that all Rwandans will “reach their individual potential to become well-rounded critically thinking citizens of an innovative , knowledge-based economy.”
3 Away from a Manufacturing Economy Mass productionStandardized productsManual labor or rote cognitive tasksHierarchical command and controlHighly integrated organizationsICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DR. ROBERT KOZMA
4 Toward an Information Economy Services are the largest sector of 25 largest economiesInformation products and services shows the most growthInnovation and new knowledge are a major engine of economic growthFor example in the US, manufacture of goods (automobiles, chemicals, industrial equipment) accounted for 54% of the economic output in By 1997, the production of information products (such as computers, books, software) and the provision of information services (financial, broadcast, education) accounted for 63%.
5 and a Knowledge Society High level of education.High penetration of ICT in the home.Large majorities of people use the internet for .Large majorities use it as a primary information sourceLarge percentages of young people use it to connect with groups, create and share digital materials.Across Europe, 91% of adults and 95% of youth between the ages 16 and 24 use it for finding information and online services.In the U.K., 49% of the children between the ages of 8-17 who use computers have an online profile.In the U.S., 64% of teens, principally girls, participated in at least one form of digital content creation
6 Transformed Business Practices Self-managed teamsRegular employee meetingsFlexible work arrangementsUse of computers in front-line positions
7 Transformed Organizational Structures Organizational flatteningDecentralized decision makingDisaggregationOut sourcing/off shoringCross-organizational collaborationMicroeconomic studies of firms across North America and EuropeICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DR. ROBERT KOZMA
8 Transformed JobsLess demand for manual skills and routine cognitive tasksMore demand for problem- solving, communications skills and team skills.ICT substitutes for low-skilled workers, supplements high- skilled workersA 2003 MIT study of labor tasks in the workplace.ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DR. ROBERT KOZMA
9 Transformations are Enabled by ICT To connect distributed teams of employeesTo coordinate with partners and suppliersTo collect and share informationTo provide products and services to customers
10 Transformed Schools?Schools structured as enclosed groups and physical spacesCurriculum is in silos tied to disciplinesTeacher lecturesStudents study independentlyStandardized exams test recall and application of simple proceduresTechnology used as a supplementSITES 2006 study in 23 countries found that the three most common pedagogical practices were to have students fill out worksheets, work at the same pace and sequence, and answer tests. Typical response was that teachers use ICT in class somewhere between “sometimes” and “never”.An OECD/CERI study of 27 countries found a positive correlation between home use of computers and achievement but no correlation between school use and achievement.In Europe where nearly 100% of schools have computers and 95% have access to the internet, the large majority of teachers who use computers, have students use them in less than 25% of their lessons.
11 Education Transformation Is the introduction of computers enough?What role can policy play?Not just ICT - -Teaching and LearningCurriculum and AssessmentSocial StructureICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DR. ROBERT KOZMA
12 Knowledge Ladder Conceptual framework for policy planning Holistic: All componentsAligned changesDevelopmental and progressive:Addresses a range of current conditions.Advances build on current resources and experiencesConnected to economic and social development.
13 A Conceptual Framework: The Knowledge Ladder BasicEducationKnowledgeAcquisitionKnowledgeDeepeningKnowledgeCreationEach model has different implications for:Policy GoalsTeaching and LearningCurriculum and AssessmentSocial StructureICT Use
14 Knowledge Ladder: Policy Goals BasicEducationKnowledgeAcquisitionKnowledgeDeepeningKnowledgeCreationIncrease workforce participation improved health and welfareDevelop a manufacturing economyCreate a highly knowledgeable citizenry that adds value to societyCreate a knowledge-driven economy and societyIncrease secondary completion, improve test scoresIncrease primary attendanceGraduates who apply school learning to solve real world problemsGraduates who are creative, innovative, lifelong learners
15 Knowledge Ladder: Teaching and Learning BasicEducationKnowledgeAcquisitionKnowledgeDeepeningKnowledgeCreationTeachers with at minimum skills & subject knowledgeTeacher content knowledge & direct instructionContent & pedagogical expertiseTeachers as collaborators and model learnersCollaborative teams working on complex real world projectsCommunities of learners who build on each other’s knowledgeLarge student-teacher ratios, lectureStudents doing individual seat work
16 Knowledge Ladder: Curriculum and Assessment BasicEducationKnowledgeAcquisitionKnowledgeDeepeningKnowledgeCreationFocus is on basic literacy and numeracyFocus on facts, simple principles, and computer applications applied to standard proceduresFocus on deep understanding of key concepts and their application to solve real world problemsFocus on innovativeness and the creation of knowledge productsAssessed by standardized testsAssessed by standardized testsAssessed by complex, real world tasksAssessed by a community of users
17 Knowledge Ladder: Social Structure BasicEducationKnowledgeAcquisitionKnowledgeDeepeningKnowledgeCreationHierarchical structureHierarchical structure and accountabilityCollaborative teaching and learningAnytime, anywhere, life-long learningStandardized deliveryLittle teacher or student autonomyBreaking disciplinary and physical boundariesSelf-sustaining, cross-age, cross-sector knowledge communities
18 Knowledge Ladder: ICT Use BasicEducationKnowledgeAcquisitionKnowledgeDeepeningKnowledgeCreationICT for information delivery: radio, TVDrill and practice, tutorial software to support test performanceSimulations, multimedia to support understanding &the application of knowledge to solve problemsSocial environments, Wikis, and knowledge-building toolsLittle computing; little networking, potential for teacher training.Computers & digital devices everywhere; networks for communityComputers in labs; networks for managementComputers in classrooms; networks for collaboration
19 Educational Transformation What kind of change needs to take place in education?Holistic ChangeWhat role can ICT play?A Lever for ChangeICT alone will not transform education19