Presentation on theme: "Current and Future Space Missions"— Presentation transcript:
1Current and Future Space Missions Chapter 22 Section 3
2The Space ShuttleReusable spacecraft for transporting astronauts and materials to and from space.
3The Space ShuttleSent into space by an external liquid fuel tank and two solid fuel boosters.The two boosters separate at about 45 km altitude and are recovered.The liquid fuel tank is not recovered.Lands like an airplane
4Space StationA place with living quarters, work and exercise areas, and all equipment and support systems necessary for supporting life.
5Past Space Stations Skylab Mir Space station launched by the US in 1973.Fell out of orbit and burned up in the atmosphere in 1979.MirRussian space station launched in 1986.Fell out of orbit and burned up in 2001.Russia had previously launched 6 modules of the Soviet Salyut station in the 1970’s.
6International Space Station Began in 1993 as a vision in which 16 countries (including the U.S., Russia, ESA, Canada, and Brazil) would build parts for a joint space station.The parts (8 large cylindrical sections called modules and about 8 large solar panels) would be transported to space by a U.S. space shuttle and Russian boosters (more than 80 trips).The space station would than be assembled in space.
7International Space Station Phase OneBegan with the cooperation of Russia and the US in 1995.Continued with a series of trips to Mir by US astronauts and Russian cosmonauts on spacecraft belonging to both the US and Russia.Ended in 1998.
8International Space Station Phase TwoBegan in November, 1998 with the launch of the Russian built Zarya (sunrise) Module, or the Functional Cargo Block.Included:December the second module, Unity, was sent to space.December 1998 – first assembly in space occurred.July 2000 – Zveda (star) or service module was sent to space.October 2000 – Various other pieces were sent to spaceNovember Full time crew, Expedition 1, made the ISS the 9th inhabited space stationNovember 2000 – Sent up solar panels.Ended with the delivery of the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module in February 2001.
9International Space Station Phase ThreeWill deliver the Japanese Experiment Module, the European Columbus Orbiting Facility, and another Russian lab to the space station.Has included:2001 – two additional modules were sent to spaceApril 2001 – first tourist to visit space station (second was in April of 2002)2001 – realization by U.S that they were $5 billion over budget…canceled plans for support of a 6 man crew by the space station.2002 – U.S. space shuttle replaced crew every 4 to 5 months.Feb. 1st, 2003 – Columbia broke apart upon re-entry killing all 7 on board.Russia began to carry crews to space station.2005 – U.S. began to again carry modules to space station2009 – space station expected to be able to support a 6 man crewExpected completion date of July 2010.
11Exploring Mars Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder Launched in 1996.Surveyor orbited Mars and took pictures.Pathfinder descended to the surface of Mars using a parachute and balloon system.Pathfinder carried a remote controlled robot called Sojourner that was used to explore the surface.Determined that water had recently seeped to the surface in some areas.
13Exploring Mars Unsuccessful Missions Mars Climate Orbiter Launched in 1998 and lost in September of 1999.Engineers used English instead of metric units and incorrectly calculated the force the thrusters should exert.Mars Polar LanderLost in December 1999 as it was making a descent to Mars.Thought that the spacecraft thought it had landed and shut off its thrusters too soon.
14New Millennium Program Goals:Develop advanced technologies to send smart spacecraft into space (reduces the amount of ground control).Reduce size of future spacecraft to reduce cost.
15Exploring the Moon Lunar Prospector Launched in 1998 Orbited moon and took pictures for one year.Indicated there might be hydrogen present at the poles of the moon.Possibly frozen ice at the bottom of the craters.The Lunar Prospector was supposed to crash into a crater at the south pole when finished with the mission to – failed.
16Cassini Launched in October of 1997. Destination is Saturn Will deliver the European Space Agency’s probe Huygens to the moon Titan which may have an atmosphere similar to that of the Earth.
17Cassini - UpdatedCassini completed its initial four-year mission to explore the Saturn System in June 2008.Cassini is now being used for the Cassini Equinox Mission (through Sept 2010) which is trying to answer questions raised during the first four years.Cassini will observe seasonal changes brought by the changing sun angle on during the August 2009 equinox on Saturn, the rings, and the moons.
18Cassini Equinox Mission SaturnThe Equinox mission will look for visible changes in the atmosphere of Saturn (such as variations in temperature, winds, and cloud patterns) due to the shifting of sunlight from south to north.
19Cassini Equinox Mission RingsThe rings of Saturn are a complex place with small moons and ring particles that jostle and collide.The Equinox mission will look for changes in ring activity due to changing sun angle.
20Cassini Equinox Mission Magnetic EnvironmentCassini found that water ice jets from the moon Enceladus played a major role in the magnetosphere of Saturn.The Equinox Mission will study this phenomena in unexplored areas of the magnetosphere.
21Cassini Equinox Mission EnceladusSmall, icy very active moon.Tidal heating keeps the moon warm.Contains complex organic chemicals.Has potential liquid water.
22Cassini Equinox Mission TitanHas a thick smog filled atmosphere with complex organic chemistry.Has vast methane lakes and wind-driven hydrocarbon sand dunes.Has an internal liquid water-ammonia ocean.The Equinox mission will:Look for seasonal climate changes such as storms, flooding, or changes in lake level.Look for evidence of volcanic activity.
23Cassini Equinox Mission Icy MoonsThe Equinox Mission will try to determine why the small moon Iapetus has a mountainous bulge around its center and why one side is black and the other side of the moon is white.The Equinox Mission will look at what appears to be rings around the moon Rhea.The Equinox Mission will look for possible activity on the moon Dione and Tethys.
24The Next Generation Space Telescope Part of the Origins projectRenamed the James Web Space Telescope in 2002 after the former NASA administrator.International collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Canadian Space Agency.Will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror. Will:help scientists to study the evolution of galaxies, the production of elements by stars, and the process of star and planet formation.be able to see objects 400 times fainter than those currently viewed with and based telescopes.be used to view the closest stars and galaxies.Launch is planned for 2013.
25Everyday Space Technology Technology developed through the space program has been used in everyday life.Examples:Programmable pacemakersAdvanced jet enginesChemical diagnostic indicatorsActivation of traffic lights by emergency vehicles