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Current and Future Space Missions Chapter 22 Section 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Current and Future Space Missions Chapter 22 Section 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Current and Future Space Missions Chapter 22 Section 3

2 The Space Shuttle Reusable spacecraft for transporting astronauts and materials to and from space. Reusable spacecraft for transporting astronauts and materials to and from space.

3 The Space Shuttle Sent into space by an external liquid fuel tank and two solid fuel boosters. Sent into space by an external liquid fuel tank and two solid fuel boosters. The two boosters separate at about 45 km altitude and are recovered. The two boosters separate at about 45 km altitude and are recovered. The liquid fuel tank is not recovered. The liquid fuel tank is not recovered. Lands like an airplane Lands like an airplane

4 Space Station A place with living quarters, work and exercise areas, and all equipment and support systems necessary for supporting life. A place with living quarters, work and exercise areas, and all equipment and support systems necessary for supporting life.

5 Past Space Stations Skylab Skylab Space station launched by the US in Space station launched by the US in Fell out of orbit and burned up in the atmosphere in Fell out of orbit and burned up in the atmosphere in Mir Mir Russian space station launched in Russian space station launched in Fell out of orbit and burned up in Fell out of orbit and burned up in Russia had previously launched 6 modules of the Soviet Salyut station in the 1970s. Russia had previously launched 6 modules of the Soviet Salyut station in the 1970s.

6 International Space Station Began in 1993 as a vision in which 16 countries (including the U.S., Russia, ESA, Canada, and Brazil) would build parts for a joint space station. Began in 1993 as a vision in which 16 countries (including the U.S., Russia, ESA, Canada, and Brazil) would build parts for a joint space station. The parts (8 large cylindrical sections called modules and about 8 large solar panels) would be transported to space by a U.S. space shuttle and Russian boosters (more than 80 trips). The parts (8 large cylindrical sections called modules and about 8 large solar panels) would be transported to space by a U.S. space shuttle and Russian boosters (more than 80 trips). The space station would than be assembled in space. The space station would than be assembled in space.

7 International Space Station Phase One Phase One Began with the cooperation of Russia and the US in Began with the cooperation of Russia and the US in Continued with a series of trips to Mir by US astronauts and Russian cosmonauts on spacecraft belonging to both the US and Russia. Continued with a series of trips to Mir by US astronauts and Russian cosmonauts on spacecraft belonging to both the US and Russia. Ended in Ended in 1998.

8 International Space Station Phase Two Phase Two Began in November, 1998 with the launch of the Russian built Zarya (sunrise) Module, or the Functional Cargo Block. Began in November, 1998 with the launch of the Russian built Zarya (sunrise) Module, or the Functional Cargo Block. Included: Included: December the second module, Unity, was sent to space. December the second module, Unity, was sent to space. December 1998 – first assembly in space occurred. December 1998 – first assembly in space occurred. July 2000 – Zveda (star) or service module was sent to space. July 2000 – Zveda (star) or service module was sent to space. October 2000 – Various other pieces were sent to space October 2000 – Various other pieces were sent to space November Full time crew, Expedition 1, made the ISS the 9 th inhabited space station November Full time crew, Expedition 1, made the ISS the 9 th inhabited space station November 2000 – Sent up solar panels. November 2000 – Sent up solar panels. Ended with the delivery of the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module in February Ended with the delivery of the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module in February 2001.

9 International Space Station Phase Three Phase Three Will deliver the Japanese Experiment Module, the European Columbus Orbiting Facility, and another Russian lab to the space station. Will deliver the Japanese Experiment Module, the European Columbus Orbiting Facility, and another Russian lab to the space station. Has included: Has included: 2001 – two additional modules were sent to space 2001 – two additional modules were sent to space April 2001 – first tourist to visit space station (second was in April of 2002) April 2001 – first tourist to visit space station (second was in April of 2002) 2001 – realization by U.S that they were $5 billion over budget…canceled plans for support of a 6 man crew by the space station – realization by U.S that they were $5 billion over budget…canceled plans for support of a 6 man crew by the space station – U.S. space shuttle replaced crew every 4 to 5 months – U.S. space shuttle replaced crew every 4 to 5 months. Feb. 1 st, 2003 – Columbia broke apart upon re-entry killing all 7 on board. Feb. 1 st, 2003 – Columbia broke apart upon re-entry killing all 7 on board. Russia began to carry crews to space station. Russia began to carry crews to space station – U.S. began to again carry modules to space station 2005 – U.S. began to again carry modules to space station 2009 – space station expected to be able to support a 6 man crew 2009 – space station expected to be able to support a 6 man crew Expected completion date of July Expected completion date of July 2010.

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11 Exploring Mars Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder Launched in Launched in Surveyor orbited Mars and took pictures. Surveyor orbited Mars and took pictures. Pathfinder descended to the surface of Mars using a parachute and balloon system. Pathfinder descended to the surface of Mars using a parachute and balloon system. Pathfinder carried a remote controlled robot called Sojourner that was used to explore the surface. Pathfinder carried a remote controlled robot called Sojourner that was used to explore the surface. Determined that water had recently seeped to the surface in some areas. Determined that water had recently seeped to the surface in some areas.

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13 Exploring Mars Unsuccessful Missions Unsuccessful Missions Mars Climate Orbiter Mars Climate Orbiter Launched in 1998 and lost in September of Launched in 1998 and lost in September of Engineers used English instead of metric units and incorrectly calculated the force the thrusters should exert. Engineers used English instead of metric units and incorrectly calculated the force the thrusters should exert. Mars Polar Lander Mars Polar Lander Lost in December 1999 as it was making a descent to Mars. Lost in December 1999 as it was making a descent to Mars. Thought that the spacecraft thought it had landed and shut off its thrusters too soon. Thought that the spacecraft thought it had landed and shut off its thrusters too soon.

14 New Millennium Program Goals: Goals: Develop advanced technologies to send smart spacecraft into space (reduces the amount of ground control). Develop advanced technologies to send smart spacecraft into space (reduces the amount of ground control). Reduce size of future spacecraft to reduce cost. Reduce size of future spacecraft to reduce cost.

15 Exploring the Moon Lunar Prospector Lunar Prospector Launched in 1998 Launched in 1998 Orbited moon and took pictures for one year. Orbited moon and took pictures for one year. Indicated there might be hydrogen present at the poles of the moon. Indicated there might be hydrogen present at the poles of the moon. Possibly frozen ice at the bottom of the craters. Possibly frozen ice at the bottom of the craters. The Lunar Prospector was supposed to crash into a crater at the south pole when finished with the mission to – failed. The Lunar Prospector was supposed to crash into a crater at the south pole when finished with the mission to – failed.

16 Cassini Launched in October of Launched in October of Destination is Saturn Destination is Saturn Will deliver the European Space Agencys probe Huygens to the moon Titan which may have an atmosphere similar to that of the Earth. Will deliver the European Space Agencys probe Huygens to the moon Titan which may have an atmosphere similar to that of the Earth. 99:Huygens-Arrival-at-Titan--onto- land?qvq=q:huygens;lc:nasaNAS~5~5,NVA2~14~14,nasaNAS~20~2 0,NVA2~1~1,NVA2~13~13,nasaNAS~16~16,NSVS~3~3,NVA2~8~8, nasaNAS~8~8,NVA2~4~4,nasaNAS~6~6,NVA2~18~18,nasaNAS~4~ 4,nasaNAS~2~2,nasaNAS~13~13,NVA2~17~17,nasaNAS~12~12,na saNAS~22~22,NVA2~16~16,NVA2~9~9,nasaNAS~10~10,nasaNAS~ 7~7,NVA2~15~15,nasaNAS~9~9,NVA2~19~19&mi=4&trs=41219,NVA2~19~19&mi=4&trs=4121

17 Cassini - Updated Cassini completed its initial four-year mission to explore the Saturn System in June Cassini completed its initial four-year mission to explore the Saturn System in June Cassini is now being used for the Cassini Equinox Mission (through Sept 2010) which is trying to answer questions raised during the first four years. Cassini is now being used for the Cassini Equinox Mission (through Sept 2010) which is trying to answer questions raised during the first four years. Cassini will observe seasonal changes brought by the changing sun angle on during the August 2009 equinox on Saturn, the rings, and the moons. Cassini will observe seasonal changes brought by the changing sun angle on during the August 2009 equinox on Saturn, the rings, and the moons.

18 Cassini Equinox Mission Saturn Saturn The Equinox mission will look for visible changes in the atmosphere of Saturn (such as variations in temperature, winds, and cloud patterns) due to the shifting of sunlight from south to north. The Equinox mission will look for visible changes in the atmosphere of Saturn (such as variations in temperature, winds, and cloud patterns) due to the shifting of sunlight from south to north.

19 Cassini Equinox Mission Rings Rings The rings of Saturn are a complex place with small moons and ring particles that jostle and collide. The rings of Saturn are a complex place with small moons and ring particles that jostle and collide. The Equinox mission will look for changes in ring activity due to changing sun angle. The Equinox mission will look for changes in ring activity due to changing sun angle.

20 Cassini Equinox Mission Magnetic Environment Magnetic Environment Cassini found that water ice jets from the moon Enceladus played a major role in the magnetosphere of Saturn. Cassini found that water ice jets from the moon Enceladus played a major role in the magnetosphere of Saturn. The Equinox Mission will study this phenomena in unexplored areas of the magnetosphere. The Equinox Mission will study this phenomena in unexplored areas of the magnetosphere.

21 Cassini Equinox Mission Enceladus Enceladus Small, icy very active moon. Small, icy very active moon. Tidal heating keeps the moon warm. Tidal heating keeps the moon warm. Contains complex organic chemicals. Contains complex organic chemicals. Has potential liquid water. Has potential liquid water.

22 Cassini Equinox Mission Titan Titan Has a thick smog filled atmosphere with complex organic chemistry. Has a thick smog filled atmosphere with complex organic chemistry. Has vast methane lakes and wind-driven hydrocarbon sand dunes. Has vast methane lakes and wind-driven hydrocarbon sand dunes. Has an internal liquid water-ammonia ocean. Has an internal liquid water-ammonia ocean. The Equinox mission will: The Equinox mission will: Look for seasonal climate changes such as storms, flooding, or changes in lake level. Look for seasonal climate changes such as storms, flooding, or changes in lake level. Look for evidence of volcanic activity. Look for evidence of volcanic activity.

23 Cassini Equinox Mission Icy Moons Icy Moons The Equinox Mission will try to determine why the small moon Iapetus has a mountainous bulge around its center and why one side is black and the other side of the moon is white. The Equinox Mission will try to determine why the small moon Iapetus has a mountainous bulge around its center and why one side is black and the other side of the moon is white. The Equinox Mission will look at what appears to be rings around the moon Rhea. The Equinox Mission will look at what appears to be rings around the moon Rhea. The Equinox Mission will look for possible activity on the moon Dione and Tethys. The Equinox Mission will look for possible activity on the moon Dione and Tethys.

24 The Next Generation Space Telescope Part of the Origins project Part of the Origins project Renamed the James Web Space Telescope in 2002 after the former NASA administrator. Renamed the James Web Space Telescope in 2002 after the former NASA administrator. International collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Canadian Space Agency. International collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Canadian Space Agency. Will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror. Will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror. Will: Will: help scientists to study the evolution of galaxies, the production of elements by stars, and the process of star and planet formation. help scientists to study the evolution of galaxies, the production of elements by stars, and the process of star and planet formation. be able to see objects 400 times fainter than those currently viewed with and based telescopes. be able to see objects 400 times fainter than those currently viewed with and based telescopes. be used to view the closest stars and galaxies. be used to view the closest stars and galaxies. Launch is planned for Launch is planned for 2013.

25 Everyday Space Technology Technology developed through the space program has been used in everyday life. Technology developed through the space program has been used in everyday life. Examples: Examples: Programmable pacemakers Programmable pacemakers Advanced jet engines Advanced jet engines Chemical diagnostic indicators Chemical diagnostic indicators Activation of traffic lights by emergency vehicles Activation of traffic lights by emergency vehicles


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