2 Are You… ASSESSMENT SAVVY? Skilled in gathering accurate information about students learning?Using it effectively to promote further learning?Please read the statements on the Anticipation Guide and mark the left hand column with Agree or Disagree.
3 Session 2 ObjectivesTo understand the purpose and importance of Formative Assessment and obtain some practical activities to implement into daily instruction.
4 Participant Expectations: I can communicate the importance of formative assessment.I can share with others how formative assessment fits into a balanced assessment system.I can distinguish between formative, benchmark, and summative assessments.
5 Four Corners Pre-test What is Formative Assessment? Used for assigning gradesEnd of Grade testsDrives InstructionOnly given 3 times a yearLabel 4 corners of the room with the letters A, B, C, DOn cue, have participants move to the corner of the room that best reflects their answer to this questionDiscuss how this can be used for the teacher as a formative assessment tool-Those who lag behind waiting to see where others goThose who immediately make a choiceB could be a correct response: EOG can be both formative and summative- depends on how you use the information gained from it- if is is used to drive your instructional practices in your classroom, then it can be a formative tool
6 Formative Assessment The word “assess”… comes from the Latin verb “assidere” meaning “to sit with”. In assessment, one is supposed to sit with the learner. This implies it is something we do with and for students and not “to” students.(Green 1998)
7 Five Assessment Myths and Their Consequences By Dr. Rick StigginsRead article- jigsaw activity
8 The Assessment–Instruction Process Pre – Assessment “finding out”Summative Assessment “making sure”Benchmark Assessment “formal check-up”Formative Assessment “checking in” “feedback” “student involvement”8
9 Current model that the state has adopted for assessments- shift from summative assessments driving our daily instruction; with more formative assessment being utilized= growth in student achievement
10 Let’s Have Some Fun Taking Notes… Grab a piece of paper…-Fold paper hotdog style-Fold into thirds-Open and cut along thecreases on the top flap only-Label the last flap: Summative Assessment-Label the middle flap: Benchmark Assessment-Label the first flap: Formative AssessmentIs this something your students can do?Create 3 column door foldable to take notes:Summative AssessmentsBenchmark AssessmentsFormative Assessments
11 Summative Assessments How often do we use this type of assessment? “Snapshots” of learning over timeShows evidence of student learning for the yearDetermines the effectiveness of instruction, strategies, or curriculumHow often do we use this type of assessment?AnnuallyBi-annuallyEnd of year/courseEnd of unit study
12 Any Cumulative Final Assessment (End of Year) Who uses these results?School Board MembersLegislatorsDistrict StaffTeachersStudents and ParentsPLCsWhat are Some Examples?Unit TestsEOGsK-2 EOYAny Cumulative Final Assessment (End of Year)
13 How often do we use this type of assessment? Benchmark AssessmentsUsed to determine how much learning has taken place up to a particular point in timeUsed to identify learning issues for targeted groupsUsed to assign grades and communicate progressMay determine how well a program / strategies / curriculum is workingHow often do we use this type of assessment?Given periodically throughout the yearBetween and among instructional units
14 Curriculum Specialists Who uses these results?School LeadersDistrict OfficialsCurriculum SpecialistsTeachersStudents and ParentsPLCsWhat are Some Examples?ClassScapeUnit TestsSelection Tests
15 How often do we use this type of assessment? Formative AssessmentsAssessments to drive / inform instructionAssessments for learningGives descriptive feedback to students about their learningNOT GRADED…Not used as accountabilityHow often do we use this type of assessment?DailyWeeklyDuring instructionCreate mini book foldable to take notesAssessment for Learning Assessment of Learning
16 Who uses these Results? What are Some Examples TeachersStudentsParents (when applicable)What are Some ExamplesWhiteboardsResponse cardsPersonal response systemsWhole class discussionObservationsTeacher / student conferenceOvert ResponsesCreate mini book foldable to take notesAssessment for Learning Assessment of Learning
17 Occurs while still time for action before formal grading occurs • Allows teachers to adapt instruction immediately while learning is still in progress (mid-course correction)• Allows students to know exactly where they don’t understand• Part of daily instruction
18 Assessment for Learning Assessment of Learning Summative Assessment (Assessment OF Learning)Pre – AssessmentFormative Assessment (Assessment FOR Learning)Benchmark Assessment “formal check-up”
19 Assessment for Learning Assessment of Learning Teachers, students and parents are the primary usersTeachers, principals, supervisors, program planners, and policy makers are the primary usersDuring learningAfter learningUsed to provide information on what and how to improve achievementUsed to certify student competenceUsed by teachers to identify and respond to student needsUsed to rank and sort studentsPurpose: improve learningPurpose: document achievement of standardsPrimary motivator: belief that success is achievablePrimary motivator: threat of punishment, promise of rewardContinuousPeriodicExamples: peer assessment, using rubrics with students, descriptive feedbackExamples: final exams, placement tests, state assessments, unit tests
20 Balancing Assessments for Students FormativeNot usually grade accountableStudent involvementPart of instructionForms direction of daily instructionAssess teachingSummativeClassroom TestsState TestsDistrict TestsHigh accountabilityAssessment of students
21 Shifts in Assessment To assessing to learn what students understand To using results to inform instructionTo students engaged in ongoing assessment of their work and othersTo descriptive feedback that empowers and motivates studentsFrom assessing to learn what students do not knowFrom using results to calculate gradesFrom end-of-term assessments by teachersFrom judgmental feedback that may harm student motivation
22 Why these shifts in assessment? A change in the mission of schools:A shift from a focus on sorting and ranking students to a focus on data driven instruction and leaving no child behind.
23 Teacher Actions Monitoring of student work • Monitoring classroom (group) discussion• Good questioning• Give opportunities for students to work (not just take notes/listen to lecture/watch teacher work problems)
24 Student Actions Working in pairs, groups, or individually. • Sharing work/explaining work to others.• Answering questions
25 Teachers What do your students know? How did you find out what they know?What’s your evidence?
26 Students What did you learn? How do you know you learned it? What feedback would you like from the teacher?
29 The Formative Assessment Framework Where am I now?Where am I going?How do I close the gap?
30 Fist to Five Self- Reflection Answer the questions in the following way:-5: I do this all the time in my classroom; this happens daily-4: I do this on an ongoing basis; this happens consistently-3: I do this frequently, or this happens frequently in myclassroom-2: I do this sometimes, or this sometimes happens in my-1: I do this infrequently, or this happens infrequently in myClassroom-Fist: I don’t do this, or this doesn’t happen in my classroom
31 1. I understand the relationship between assessment and student motivation and use assessment to build studentconfidence rather than for threat of punishment.2. I articulate, in advance of teaching, the achievementtargets my students are to hit.3. My students describe what targets they are to hit andwhat comes next in their learning.4. My students are actively, consistently, and effectivelyinvolved in assessment, including learning to manage their ownlearning through the skills of self-assessment.5. My students actively, consistently, and effectivelycommunicate with others about their achievement status andimprovement.
32 Seven Strategies of Formative Assessment Where am I now?(criteria for success)1. Provide a clear and understandablevision of the learning goals.2. Use examples of strong and weakwork.Where am I going?(analyze evidence)3. Offer regular descriptive feedback.4. Teach students to self-assess andset goals.How can I close the gap?(adjust instruction)5. Design lessons to focus on oneaspect of quality at a time.6. Teach students focused revision.7. Engage students in self-reflectionand let them document and sharetheir learning.
33 How do you typically assess students in your classroom? Stand up where you are and find a partner standing next to youStand shoulder to shoulder facing me for instructionsInstructions:At the signal- you will turn and face your partner and take turns sharing one answer/response to this question at a time, continue going back and forth with your answers until time is called“Rally Robin”
34 Now I know what it is… what does it look like in my room? Clear Learning GoalManipulatives Paper/Pencil “Free”Pinch Sticks Foldables Fist to FiveIndex Cards Graphic Organizers Thumbs up/downWhite Boards Exit Tickets CornersSticky Notes Shaping your Thinking JigsawThink/Pair/Share Quick Write/Quick Draw
35 Share Out= Other Examples of Formative Assessment *Participants identify examples we havemodeled or shared already today*Participants brainstorm own classroomexamples*Refer to handout examples*Share Examples on Powerpoint –ABCs of Formative Assessment
36 Formative ASSESSMENTS The ABC’s ofFormative ASSESSMENTS
37 Alphabet Graffiti Anticipatory Guides (pre- and formative) AgreeDisagreeFungi must form spores to reproduce.Support it:All mushrooms are safe for us to eat.Yeast is a form of fungus.Penicillin is made from a fungus.
38 Bump in the Road or Muddiest Point (formative) Write down something from the lesson that students find confusing or difficult.Collect responses and review, ORForm small groups and ask students to share their “bumps” and seek clarification.
39 Crumpled Question Toss (formative) Each student writes a question about something discussed during the unit (or questions are pre-written)Crumple paper and gently toss to another.Open crumpled paper and answer the question.Re-crumple and toss.Add any needed additional information.Re-crumple and toss a third time.Final student makes changes/additions, the presents the question/answers with class.
40 Card Trick (formative) Each student picks a playing card.When the teacher asks a question or gives a problem, discuss it with your partner.The teacher will say something like, “all red cards stand” or “all Kings stand.”The teacher will pick someone who is standing to respond.
41 Dry-Erase Back to Back Boards (formative) You and your partner each get a mini-white board and stand back-to-back.The teacher asks a question and you each answer on your board.When the teacher says “turn around” you show each other your answers and discuss.
42 Entrance or Exit Cards (pre- or formative) Students write a response to a teacher generated question on a slip of paper.Teacher can review and re-teach.Entrance cards – questions related to upcoming learning.Exit cards – questions related to completed instruction.Variation – use same question for both Entrance and Exit.
46 Exit Card Name Question: (formative) Not at this time YES Rate yourself:1 = high confidence2 = medium confidence3 = I’m not sure on thisWould you help someone else learn this?
47 Four Corners (formative) Teacher posts questions, concepts, or vocabulary words in each of the corners of the room.Each student is assigned a corner. Once in the corner, the students discuss the focus of the lesson in relation to the question, concept, or words.Students may report out or move to another corner and repeat.After students have moved, as a writing assignment they should be encouraged to reflect on changes in opinion or what they have learned.
48 Graphic Organizers or Learning Logs (pre- or formative) What I knew already…New VocabularyImportant to rememberChart/Picture itThis reminded me of…Not so sure about this…
49 Math Graph Organizers or Learning Logs What I knew already…New concept or ideaImportant to rememberChart/Picture it or give an example…How this relates to a past concept/idea…Not so sure about this…
50 Pre-Assessing Using Graphic Organizers Define it…Give an example…Give a non-example…Ask a question about it…
51 Early Elementary Graphic Organizer or Log WINTER Define it…Give an example…Give a non-example…Ask a question about it…What are the WINTER MONTHS?Coldest SeasonSnowColored Leaves
52 Human Graph ( pre-assessment or formative) Demonstrated at the beginning of the presentation.“Snowball” toss then human graph.x xx x x xx x x x x
53 Idea Spinner (formative) PredictExplainEvaluateFreeSummarizeThe teacher creates a spinner marked into 4 or 5 quadrants and labeled “Predict, Explain, Summarize, Evaluate” and “Free.”After new material is presented, the teacher spins the spinner and asks students to answer a question based on the location of the spinner. For example, if the spinner lands in the “Summarize” quadrant, the teacher might say, “List the key concepts just presented.”
54 Journal Entry (formative) Writing done to encourage reflection or exploration of ideas or interest.Questions for reflection are often given by the teacher.What did you think of the class? Why?What did you learn today? What did you do in school today?What happened in school today that made you feel proud?How do you want to be evaluated?One thing that the teacher could do to help me understand things better is…One thing that I do that helps me learn the best is…
55 Key Concepts (formative) Explain the key concept “_revolution__.”Give a definition (in your own words), draw a symbol/picture to represent it, give an example of the concept, and a big idea to go with it.DefinitionBig IdearevolutionOverthrow of one government for another government or sudden change (e.g., in ideas, technology)Revolutions sometimes occur when peoples’ rights are taken away or they have bad times economically.We are going to overthrow thegovernment because you peopleare really mean!Picture/symbolAmerican Revolution, French Revolution, Russian RevolutionIndustrial RevolutionExamples
56 Key Concepts (formative) Explain the key concept “_the 5 senses_.”Give a definition (in your own words), draw a symbol/picture to represent it, give an example of the concept, and a big idea to go with it.DefinitionEyes, Hands, Ears, Mouth, Nose5 SensesBig IdeaWe learn about our world through our 5 senses.Picture/symbolExamplesSeeing, Touching, Hearing, Tasting, Smelling
57 Letter to Principal/Parent (formative) Write a short letter to the principal/parent telling him or her all of the ideas you have learned about this week.
59 Instead of Magnets, Use Post-its No clueI’ve heard of this.I know a lot about this.I’m an expert on this.
60 Note-Taking Specialist (formative) Switch notes with your partner.Look at your partner’s notes and enhance his/her notes by underlining key terms/ideas, drawing symbols for key ideas, adding in any important notes that are missing, asking questions about key ideas.
61 Outside/Inside Circle (formative) Inside and outside circles of students face each other.Within each pair of facing students, students quiz each other with questions they have written or problems they have created.Outside circle moves to create new pairs.Repeat.
62 P-M-I (formative) P-M-I P (Plus/Positives about the topic) M (Minus/Negatives about the topic)I (Intriguing/Interesting about the topic)*S (Suggestions for further study on the topic)
63 Quick Write/Quick Draw (pre-assessment or formative) ScienceSequence/steps/cycles/processes Scientific principles Content-area vocabularyMathSteps in a processSocial StudiesImportant events/turning points/conflicts Elements of civilization Highlights of an era Content-area vocabularyELACharacter/key figures/attributes Setting/conflict/problems & solutions Beginning, middle, end Symbols/themesFrom 25 Quick Formative Assessments for a Differentiated Classroom
64 Rock, Paper, Scissors (formative) Listen to the question or the problem the teacher asks and discuss it with your partner.Do “Rock, Paper, Scissors” with your partner.The winner stands and the teacher will choose one or more of the winners to answer the question. Repeat several times.
65 Spinner – Used with Think/Pair/Share (formative) In response to a teacher prompt or question, students THINK,Then PAIR (discuss with a partner),And then SHARE ideas with the whole class – only those whose number is called (using the spinner) share.
67 Tear and Share Activity (formative) 1111234From Fogarty & Pete – Wildly Exciting, 2010
68 Understanding Check with Signaling (pre-assessment or formative) Sometimescalled“Fist to Five”4 Fingers – Very Well3 Fingers – Well2 Fingers – Somewhat Well1 Fingers – Not Very WellFist – Not At All
69 Informal Formative Assessment: Red, Yellow, Green RED: Show red if you…feel I have not explained this clearly;still have many questions;can’t work without assistance; ordo not understand what you are supposed to do.YELLOW: Show yellow if you…have a question;need more information; orneed more time to think.GREEN: Show green if you…really understand;can explain what you know to the class; orare okay if I call on you.
72 Whiteboard or Chart Paper Champs (formative) The class is divided into 5-6 teams.The whiteboard/chart paper is divided into a large space for each team.Each person needs a writing utensil.When the teacher says “Go,” all team members rush to their area and write or draw (symbols/pictures) to represent key ideas in the current topic of study. (It will be crowded!)At the end of 3 minutes, each team must present 2-3 ideas from their whiteboard or chart paper creation.
73 X Marks the Spot (pre-assessment and formative) Have students track their progress on the targets.XX
74 Yes/No Cards (pre-assessment or formative) Students make a large index card with Yes (or "Got It") on one side, No ("No clue") on the other side.Teachers ask an introductory or review question.Students who know the answer hold up the Yes card, if they might have the answer they hold the No card.Then do a quick Think/Pair/Share.This short assessment can give a quick look at what the group is ready for/understands/'gets'.Example: Use when introducing vocabulary words that students need as a knowledge base for a specific unit of study.
75 ZAP Game (Like Password) (formative for a vocabulary check) One student looks at the screen – one does not look at the screen.The student looking at the screen gives clues to the student not looking at the screen.As soon as someone “gets” the word, the team raises their hands.Other teams quietly say “ZAP.”Do 6 words, then switch partners.
76 A Vocabulary Review Activity ZAP(Like Password)A Vocabulary Review Activity
78 You will each have 2 minutes to talk Talk to this person about which of these ideas would work in your classroom.Stand up and make eye-contact with someone who is wearing a similar color to yours. Discuss the above.You will each have 2 minutes to talkIdentify at least 2 you will commit to using.7878
79 Anticipation Guide Statement Formative assessment is a formal test AgreeDisagreeStatementFormative assessment is a formal testFormative assessment should only occur at the end of a unit or chapter.Formative assessment is a system of techniques and strategies.Formative assessment should always receive a grade.Formative assessment checks for understanding during instruction.
80 SOME FINAL THOUGHTS Formative Assessment: Refers to what happens on a daily basis in the classroomProvides teachers with information about specific next instructional steps for students:Assessment Drives Instruction.Students know where they are at instructionally and where they need to goOn-going assessment provides continual feedback that helps students progress over time
81 FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT This Type of Assessment is NOT New… it is a New way of thinking about our current instruction!
82 SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENTThis type of assessment is a successful end product and/or the fulfilling of the pre-stated objective.More formative assessment= greater student achievement
84 “The Garden Analogy”Formative Assessment is the equivalent of feeding and watering the plants appropriate to their needs- directly affecting their growth.
85 Shaping Up Your Thinking Draw the following shapes on your paper and then listen for directionsSomething that was said today that SQUARES with my thinkingA question or thought that is going AROUND in my mind3ImportantPOINTSto rememberShaping Up Your Thinking