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Observing How Habitable Conditions Develop (Or Not) in Protoplanetary Disks Colette Salyk National Optical Astronomy Observatory Credit: JPL-Caltech/T.

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Presentation on theme: "Observing How Habitable Conditions Develop (Or Not) in Protoplanetary Disks Colette Salyk National Optical Astronomy Observatory Credit: JPL-Caltech/T."— Presentation transcript:

1 Observing How Habitable Conditions Develop (Or Not) in Protoplanetary Disks Colette Salyk National Optical Astronomy Observatory Credit: JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle (SSC) Credit: NASA ?

2 Why studying protoplanetary disks is important for understanding habitability Planet formation laboratory – ground truth for our ideas about how planets form and habitability develops

3 Even if you dont care how planets form…

4 Milky way diameter: 40 kpc (120,000 light years) Microlensing planets: 5 kpc Kepler planets: 2 kpc Imaged planets: 0.2 kpc Credit: Exoplanet app Planet detection remains difficult at large distances, and characterization even more so

5 Why studying protoplanetary disks is important for understanding habitability Planet formation laboratory – ground truth for our ideas about how planets form and habitability develops Understanding formation process allows us to extrapolate to the rest of the galaxy/universe

6 Overview of what we do and dont know about protoplanetary disks Current studies of development of Goldilocks properties: – Location – Planet size and type – Chemistry

7 Composed of gas and (opaque) dust, Few 100 AU in size CO velocity in HD (ALMA) de Gregorio-Monsalvo et al Opaque disks in Orion (Hubble) 1800 AU

8 Small (but evolved) dust, consistent with olivine composition Spitzer spectra of Si-O stretch Chondrule from American Museum of Natural History meteorite collection Kessler-Silacci et al Data Models

9 Small (but evolved) dust, consistent with olivine composition Chondrule from American Museum of Natural History meteorite collection Spitzer spectra of Si-O stretch Kessler-Silacci et al Data Models

10 Protoplanetary disks are ubiquitous* Kraus & Ireland, 2011 *around sun-like stars in nearby star-forming regions

11 Protoplanetary disks last a few Myr Kraus & Ireland, 2011

12 Masses are consistent with Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, or slightly lower Ophiuchus data from Andrews et al. 2007

13 Masses are consistent with Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, or slightly lower Ophiuchus data from Andrews et al small

14 Planet size and location: Snow lines and disk dispersal Chemistry: Chemical inventories of planet forming regions Active research related to habitability

15 What processes determine planetary size and location?

16 Gas giants Terrestrial planets What processes determine planetary size and location?

17 Gas giants Terrestrial planets The snow line – an increase in solid surface density

18 What is the expected location of the snow line?

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20 Gas giants Terrestrial planets The snow line Habitable zone

21 Multi-wavelength observations of water vapor measure snow line locations ice line K. Pontoppidan

22 First measured locations of snow lines in disks Meijerink Zhang+ 2013

23 First measured locations of snow lines in disks Meijerink Zhang See poster by Sandra Blevins for an update!

24 Gas giants Terrestrial planets Ice giants (super Earths?) Planet type affected by disk dispersal

25 Dispersal of disk gas also affects planet migration Snapshot of disk surface density with planet undergoing migration P. Armitage # of planets Orbital Period [days] Hot Jupiters

26 How do disks evolve/disperse? Disk winds Blandford & Payne 1982 Pudritz & Norman 1983 Cartoon inspired by Bai et al B wind accretion

27 Molecular emission lineshapes and images – evidence for disk winds? Pontoppidan+ 2009; also Bast Flux Velocity ALMA CO velocity field Salyk+ in prep Brown Vibrational CO

28 How do disks evolve/disperse? Photoevaporative winds wind FUV EUV X-ray

29 How do disks evolve/disperse? Photoevaporative winds wind FUV EUV X-ray ? Main open question: How quickly do disks dissipate at each disk radius?

30 Observations of photoevaporation tracers measure location and mass-loss [Ne II] emission from two disks + models Pascucci & Sterzik 2009

31 Chemistry: Chemical inventories of planet forming regions

32 Solar data from Grevesse et al Chondrite data from Allegre et al CI chondrite abundances vs. solar abundances (R ~ 4 AU)

33 Earth abundances vs. solar abundances (R = 1 AU) Solar data from Grevesse et al Chondrite data from Allegre et al. 2001

34 N 2, HCN, NH 3, organics ? CO, CO 2, organics, graphite? Earth abundances vs. solar abundances (R = 1 AU) Solar data from Grevesse et al Chondrite data from Allegre et al. 2001

35 What is the correct chemical pathway? Inheritance or reset? Maximum reset Maximum Inheritance

36 Resemblance between cometary and cloud ice compositions = an inheritance assumption Data from Mumma & Charnley 2011 (and references therein) Cometary abundance % relative to water Cloud abundance % relative to water

37 Evidence for reset in the solar system: CAIs and chondrules Chondrule Calcium Aluminum-rich Inclusion (CAI) Thin sections from the American Museum of Natural History meteorite collection

38 Carr & Najita 2008 Also, Salyk The study of chemistry in inner disks was enabled by the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS)

39 O,C,N inventory in inner disks is being measured Pontoppidan O C N Fraction

40 Evidence for reset in disks: O,C,N inventory different from birth cloud Salyk et al. 2011; Öberg et al. 2011

41 Evidence for reset in disks: Variability in disk chemistry Banzatti et al See poster by Andrea Banzatti

42 Current: Partial chemical inventory, evidence for reset Yet to come: Chemical differences between disks, and as a function of radius

43 Basic protoplanetary disk properties have been characterized Studies of development of Goldilocks properties ongoing: – Location – Planet size and type – Chemistry Conclusions Measuring snow lines Observing disk evolution/dispersal Chemical inventory in planet-forming regions, evidence for reset, details yet to come Questions about observing disks?


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