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Diseño de Estanques de cultivo de peces Biol. Pascual Cabañas Laurel Universidad Autonoma del Estado de hidalgo.

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Presentation on theme: "Diseño de Estanques de cultivo de peces Biol. Pascual Cabañas Laurel Universidad Autonoma del Estado de hidalgo."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diseño de Estanques de cultivo de peces Biol. Pascual Cabañas Laurel Universidad Autonoma del Estado de hidalgo

2 Densidad de carga C densidad 1.5 para L en pulg (0.24 for L in cm) for tilapia 2.0 (0.32) para trucha 2.5 (0.40) para carpa

3 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Stocking Density Required tankage volume, fish harvest size, and the harvests per year (turnovers)

4 Ingenieria de los tanques Tanques circulares son excelentes recipientes de cultivo Los tanques circulares cada vez son mas y mas grandes ! Mejora de la uniformidad de las condiciones de cultivo Permitir una amplia gama de velocidades de rotación para optimizar los peces salud y condiciones Rápida concentración y eliminación de los sólidos sedimentables.

5 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Circular Tanks Are Widely Used

6 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Culture Tank Engineering Tanks fail as units distributing flow to obtain uniform mixing and rapid solids removal grading and harvesting fish removing mortalities isolating the biofilter while treating the fish with a chemotherapeutant Start small and build upon success! Other Challenges of circular tanks

7 Tanques circulares: Ventajas Tanques circulares: VentajasVentajas: ambiente uniforme velocidad de rotación óptima para nadar peces para nadar peces para los atributos de auto-limpieza para los atributos de auto-limpieza distribuye el flujo rápida eliminación de los desechos

8 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Fewer But Larger Culture Tanks Reduce floor space requirements Reduces cumulative cost of equipment: flow control valves effluent stand-pipe structures fish feeders probes: oxygen, pH, temperature, ORP flow, level switches Reduces labor: time required to analyze water quality distribute feed perform cleaning chores

9 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Tank Design and Economies of Scale Disadvantages of fewer but larger tanks: larger economic risk with each tank loss mechanical problems biological problems potential problems to overcome: removing mortalities grading and harvesting fish controlling flow hydraulics water velocities, dead-spaces, and settling zones

10 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Round Tanks: Diameter & Depth Culture tanks can be large between 12 to 42 m diameter smaller tanks are used hatcheries smaller farms Dia:Depth = 3:1 to 10:1 although silo tanks have been used

11 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Round Tanks: Optimum Velocity Optimum swimming velocity = (0.5 to 2.0) x (fish body length)/second Velocities in a donut-shaped region about tank center are reduced: allows fish to select a variety of swimming speeds

12 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Round Tanks: Radial Flow Primary rotating flow creates secondary radial flow: transports settleable solids to bottom center creates self-cleaning tank

13 Round Tanks: Self-Cleaning Action Circular tanks self-clean, due to: swimming motion of fish tank rotation every sec creates rotational velocities > cm/s tank rotation controls tea-cup effect

14 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Round Tanks: Flow Injection Impulse force created by inlet flow controls rotational velocity! dependent on: inlet flow rate velocity of inlet flow can be adjusted by selecting size and number of inlet openings alignment of inlet flow

15 : tipo de inyeccion del flujo de agua Entrada de flujo de inyección tubería abierta mezcla pobre velocidades más altas en la pared del tanque sólidos pobres lavado Entrada de flujo de inyección tubería vertical y horizontal mezcla más uniforme menos flujo de cortocircuito lo largo del fondo del tanque sólidos de lavado más eficaces

16 Control del flujo de agua

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21 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Outlet Flow Structures

22 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Cornell type Dual-Drain Culture Tanks

23 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Concentrate Solids at the Culture Tank Cornell type Dual-Drain Culture Tanks uses a side-wall drain to withdraw majority of flow free from solids 95% flow 5% flow

24 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Mixing in Cornell-type Tanks irrotational zone irrotational zone Need to minimize irrotational zone to avoid: poorer mixing lower velocities & solids depositing on tank bottom Note, irrotational zone provides excellent settling

25 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Bottom Drain Flushing Solids deposit about center drain occurs more 1 ex/hr 2 ex/hr), > dia:depth (e.g.,12:1), lower % bottom flows 5%). Dia:Depth of 3:1 & 6:1 had few deposits 2 ex/hr -- BEST

26 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Exclusion Screen Corrosion-resistant screening material, such as perforated sheets of aluminum, stainless steel, fiberglass, or plastic are used to cover drain outlets. Slot Size (mm)Fish size, g 1.6 x 3.2fry to 0.45 g 3.2 x to 2.3 g 6.4 x to 15 g 12.7 x g and larger Rule of Thumb Water velocity through the screen is 30 cm/s.

27 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Design Suggestions for Cornell-Type Tank Orientation of inlet jets is critical for mixing & solids flushing. Design m water pressure behind inlet jets Size center drain o.d. > 10% tanks Size open area for center & side drains to provide cm/s velocity. "Rule of Thumb Choose the Center Drain Flow as the largest of: a) 0.15 gpm/ft 2 (6 Lpm/m 2 ) of floor, b) HRT center drain < 200 minutes, or c) 10 to 15% of total tank flow rate.

28 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Dual-Drain Tanks Concentrate settleable solids achieves large economic benefits ä reduces capital costs and space requirements for downstream solids removal units solids capture efficiency increases as inlet TSS increases!

29 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Raceways

30 Raceways (plug flow reactors) Advantages: Excellent footprint utilization Efficient and easy handling & sorting Disadvantages: Water quality gradient (DO) Low velocity (not self cleaning)

31 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Raceways Management based on oxygen loading requirements loading velocity = 2 to 4 cm/s not on solids flushing requirements solids flushing velocity = 15 to 30 cm/s DO loading velocity << solids flushing velocity fish sweep solids slowly down raceways

32 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Concentrate Solids in the Raceway Quiescent zones in the raceways: screened to exclude fish collect and store settleable solids swept from fish rearing areas quiescent zone quiescent zone

33 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Concentrate Solids in the Raceway Settled solids removal from quiescent zones: most often suctioned out with a vacuum pump as often as every 1 to 3 days as infrequently as bimonthly also washed out through a floor drain cleaned vacuum

34 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Mixed-cell Raceway Best of Both World (Round Tanks & Raceways) Efficient footprint utilizations Efficient and easy handling & sorting Good self cleaning velocities Optimal velocities for fish

35 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Engineering Design Mixed-cell Raceway Pum p 4 Manifold Pipe SR TANK Sludge Disposal Sump & Settling w/ Stirring Pump Harvest by screen capture 6 drain line

36 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Engineering Design Mixed-cell Raceway

37 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Construction – Greenhouse 16.3 m x 5.44 m x 1.22 m (18 ft x 56 ft x 4 ft). (18 ft x 56 ft x 4 ft). 20 ml HDPE Liner

38 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Water Distribution System Sump Tank water level water level harvesting harvesting solids management solids management Water Distribution Manifold

39 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Water Distribution Manifold 3 Distribution Lines Orifices Vertical manifolds

40 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Systems Management Monitoring Water Level Water Level Air Pressure Air Pressure Manifold Pressure Manifold Pressure Heating Loop Pressure Heating Loop Pressure Water Temperature Water Temperature Air Temperature Air Temperature Sound Level Sound Level Power Power Heat Exchanger Propane Heater

41 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Engineering Design Tank Rotational Velocity Controlled by the design of the orifice discharge (inlet flux of momentum) Orifice diameter Nozzle discharge velocity Number of orifices

42 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Research Results Iso-curves for predicting mean rotational velocities for different nozzle diameters and discharge jet velocities.

43 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Research Results Piezometric head required in the vertical manifolds as a function of the inlet jet velocity.

44 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Research Application - Design Zero-exchange Mixed-cell Raceway 0.5 exchange rate / hr (250 gpm) 15% (35 gpm) center drains Optimal Tank Rotational Velocity Average 10 cm/sec Discharge Jet Velocity = 4 m/s Pressure Head = 1 m

45 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Research Results 0.50 tank exchanges per hour 0.74 m 3 /min (250 gpm) 10 mm discharge orifice 1.00 m pressure head 15% from center drain 1.5 kW Pumps (2 Hp) #2 #3 #1

46 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Research Results Mixed Cell Hydrodynamics

47 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Tank Access & Tank Enclosures Was tank access designed into the tank layout?

48 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Tank Design Example Production Goal: 1.0 million lb/yr (454 mton/yr)

49 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Design Assumptions Assuming: Mean feeding rate: r feed = 1.2% BW/day Feed conversion rate: FCR = 1.3 kg feed/kg fish produced Culture Density : 80 kg fish/m 3 (these rates are an average over entire year)

50 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course System Biomass Estimation Estimate of systems average feeding biomass :

51 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Total Oxygen Requirements Estimate the oxygen demand of systems feeding fish: where: R DO = average DO consumption Rate = kg DO consumed by fish per day) a DO = average DO consumption proportionality constant = kg DO consumed per 1 kg feed Ranges from 0.4 to 1.0 kg O 2 /kg feed – cold water to warm water

52 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Total Flow Requirement – Oxygen Load Estimate water flow (Q) required for fishs O 2 demand: Assuming culture tank: DO inlet = 20 mg/L DO effluent = 6 mg/L steady state)

53 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Total Tank Volume Requirements Assume an average fish density across all culture tanks in the system: culture density = 80 kg fish/m 3

54 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Check Culture Tank Exchange Rate In general, a culture tank exchange every minutes provides good flushing of waste metabolites while maintaining hydraulics within circular culture tanks

55 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Number of Tanks Required Assuming 9 m (30 ft) dia tanks water depth 2.3 m 7.5 ft culture volume per tank 150 m 3 40,000 gal culture tanks required Assuming 15 m (50 ft) dia tanks water depth 3.7 m 12 ft culture volume per tank 670 m 3 177,000 gal 2-3 culture tanks required

56 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Design Summary Ten Production Tanks Diameter 9.14 m ( 30 ft ) Water depth 2.3 m (7.5 ft) Culture volume per tank 150 m 3 (40,000 gal) Flow Rate 5,000 Lpm (1,320gpm) Biomass Density 86 kg/m 3 (0.72 lbs/gal)

57 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Dual-Drain Tanks Design Bottom Flow a) 400 Lpm (106 gpm) b) 750 Lpm (198 gpm) c) 500 to 750 lpm (132 to 200 gpm) "Rule of Thumb Choose the Center Drain Flow as the largest of: a) 0.15 gpm/ft 2 (6 Lpm/m 2 ) of floor, b) HRT center drain < 200 minutes, or c) 10 to 15% of total tank flow rate.

58 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Dual-Drain Tanks Design Side Discharge Flow 4,800 Lpm (1120 gpm)

59 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course Questions?


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