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Work, Power, Simple machines

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Presentation on theme: "Work, Power, Simple machines"— Presentation transcript:

1 Work, Power, Simple machines

2 Section 1: Work and Power

3 1) In science, work occurs when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force.
Work has happened because the box moved

4 2) Work is done when the object moves as the force is applied and b) the direction of the object’s motion is the same as the direction of the force applied.

5 3) Work can be calculated:
W=F x d Work equals force times distance

6 4) Force is measured in Newtons, and distance is measured in meters:
so the unit for work is the Newton-meter or the joule.

7 5) Calculating work: a) A man applies a force of 500N to push a truck 100m down the street. How much work does he do?

8 1- You lift a 75N bowling ball 2 m off the floor
b) In which situation do you do more work? 1- You lift a 75N bowling ball 2 m off the floor 2- You lift two 50 N bowling balls 1m off the floor.

9 Complete the following work problems
Complete the following work problems. The first one has been done as an example for you. Work (J) = Force (N) X Distance (m) 1. 20J = 10N X 2m 2. 20J = force? X 2m 3. work? = 10N X 50m 4. work? = 0.5N X 600m 5. 500J = 500N X distance? 6. work? = 80N X 7m

10 the units for power are the watt (W)
6) Power is how fast work is done. It can be calculated: P=W/t the units for power are the watt (W)

11 a) work is done in less time, or b) the amount of work is increased.
7) Power is increased if a) work is done in less time, or b) the amount of work is increased. Review game

12 Section 2: Machines

13 A machine is a device that helps make work easier by changing either the size or direction of a force.

14 2) Machines do not make work less; they make work easier by multiplying the input force.
The ratio of output force to input force is called the mechanical advantage.

15 3) Work done on a machine is called work input, work done by the machine is the work output.
The ratio of work input to work output is efficiency.

16 4) Work output is never greater than work input, because some of the work done by the machine is used to overcome friction. No machine is 100% efficient

17 Section 3: Types of Machines

18 1) All machines are made from six simple machines: the lever, inclined plane, wedge, screw, pulley, and wheel and axle.

19 2) Levers: a bar that pivots at a fixed point called a fulcrum
A) First class levers: fulcrum between the input force and load (see-saw) B) Second class levers: load between the fulcrum and the input force (wheel barrow) C) Third class levers: input force between the fulcrum and the load (hammer)

20 3) Inclined Plane: straight slanted surface - the longer the plane the greater the mechanical advantage (ramp)

21 4) Wedges: double inclined plane that moves (knife, axe head, or door stop)

22 5) Screw: inclined plane wrapped in a spiral

23 6) Wheel and axle: two circular objects of different sizes (door knobs) that rotate

24 7) Pulleys: grooved wheel that holds a rope or cable that attaches to a load

25 8) Compound machines: machines made of two or more simple machines

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