Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 – Work, Power & Simple Machines"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 15 – Work, Power & Simple Machines Essential Questions:I. What is Work? (In Physics Terms!)II. What is Power? (In Physics Terms!)III. How do machines make work easier and how efficient are they?IV. What are the 5 types of simple machines?V. What are compound machines?
2 15-1 What is Work?WorkDef. – Work is done when a force acts on an object along the parallel direction the object movesIn order for work to be done, a force must be exerted over a distance.Ex – you can push on a wall for hours, you’ll be real tired, but you haven’t done any work – in the scientific sense, anyway…
3 15-1 WorkWorkThe amount of work done in moving an object is equal to the force applied to the object along the direction the object moves times the distance through which the object movesUnitsForce is measured in Newtons, Distance is measured in meters. So, the unit is Newton X meters. A Newton•meter is known as a Joule (J)
4 15-1 Work W = F * d W = F * d F = 700 N W = (700 N) (50 m) d = 50 m A 700 N person climbs a 50 m cliff. How much work did she perform?GIVEN:W = F * dF = 700 Nd = 50 mWORK:W = F * dW = (700 N) (50 m)W = 35,000 J
5 15-1 Work W = F * d W = F * d F = 200 N W = (200 N) (0.5 m) d = 0.5 m An object weighing 200 N is lifted 0.5 m. How much work was required?GIVEN:W = F * dF = 200 Nd = 0.5 mWORK:W = F * dW = (200 N) (0.5 m)W = 100 J
6 15-1 Work W = F * d W = 50 J F = 0.05 N GIVEN: A dog does 50 N-m (Joules) of work dragging a 0.05 N bone. How far did the bone move?GIVEN:W = F * dW = 50 JF = 0.05 NWORK:W = F * dd = WFd = (50 J)(0.05 N)d = 1,000 m
7 15-1 Work W = F * d W = 25.0 J d = 2.0 m GIVEN: WORK: W = F * d F = W Mrs. O’Gorman’s superhuman strength allows her to lift a pickup truck 2.0 m above the ground. How much force was required if 25.0 Joules (J) of work was done?GIVEN:W = F * dW = 25.0 Jd = 2.0 mWORK:W = F * dF = WdF = 25.0 J2.0 mF = 12.5 N
8 15-2 PowerPowerDef: The rate at which work is done, or the amount of work per unit time.Power tells you how fast work is being done – so it is a rate – similar to the way speed, velocity and acceleration are rates. Power is work per unit time.Any measurement per unit time is a rate!!Formula:
9 15-2 Power Power rate at which work is done measured in watts (W) P: power (W)W: work (J)t: time (s)
10 15-2 PowerFormula:Since work’s formula is force X Distance, the formula for Power may ALSO be written as:
11 15-2 PowerUnitsWork is measured in Joules (J), So, the unit for Power is a Joule per second (J/s).The short way to write a J/s is a Watt (W).
12 15-2 Power When do we use Watts in our Daily Lives? They are used to express electrical power.Electric appliances and lightbulbs are rated in Watts.Ex: A 100 Watt light bulb does twice the work in one second as a 50 Watt lightbulb.
13 15-2 PowerA small motor does 4000 J of work in 20 sec. What the power of the motor in Watts?GIVEN:W = 4000 JT = 20 secP = ?WORK:P = W ÷ tP = 4000 J ÷ 20 sP = 200 J ÷ sSo P = 200 W
14 15-2 PowerAn engine moves a remote control car by performing 120,000 J of work. The power rating of the car is 2400 W. How long does it take to move the car?GIVEN:P = 2400 WW = 120,000 JT = ?WORK:t = W ÷ Pt = 120,000 J ÷ 2400 Wt = 50 sec
15 15-2 PowerA figure skater lift his partner who weighs 450 N, 1.5 m in 3.0 sec. How much power is required?PF x dtGIVEN:P = ?F = 450 Nd = 1.5 mt = 3.0 secWORK:P = F x d t P = 450 N x 1.5 m sec P = 625 J (N•m) 3.0 secP = 225 W
16 15-2 Power P W t F = 300 N P = W ÷ t d = 2.0 m W = F x d P = 300 W A sumo wrestler lifts his competitor, who weighs 300 N, 2.0 m using 300 Watts of power. How long did it take him to accomplish this show of strength?PWtGIVEN:F = 300 Nd = 2.0 mP = 300 Wt = ?WORK:P = W ÷ tW = F x dW = (300 N)(2.0 m) = 600 Jt = 600 J ÷ 300 Wt = 2.0 s
17 15-3 MachinesMachine – def. – Any device that changes the size of a force, or its direction, is called a machine.Machines can be anything from a pair of tweezers to a bus.
18 15-3 MachinesThere are always 2 types of work involved when using a machineWork Input - The work that goes into it.Work Output - The work that comes out of it.The work output can NEVER be greater than the work input!!!
19 15-3 MachinesSo, if machines do not increase the work we put into them, how do they help us?Machines make work easier because they change either the size or the direction of the force put into the machine.
20 15-3 Machines Let’s analyze this… Machines can not increase the amount of work, so work either stays the same or decreases.The formula for work is:Work = force x distance
21 15-3 Machines Again, the formula for work is: Work = force x distance So, mathematically speaking, to end up with the same or less work:If the machine increases the force then the distance must decrease.If the machine increases the distance, then the force must decrease.
22 15-3 MachinesWhy is it that machines can’t have more work output than input? Where does all the work disappear to?A machine loses some of the input work to the force of friction that is created when the machine is used.Part of the input work is used to overcome the force of friction.There is no machine that people have made that is 100% efficient
23 15-3 MachinesIf machines make our work easier, how much easier do they make it?The ratio of how much work output there is to the amount of work input is called a machine’s efficiency.Efficiency is usually expressed as a percentage (%).
24 15-3 MachinesEfficiencymeasure of how completely work input is converted to work outputIt is always less than 100% due to the opposing force of friction.
25 15-3 Machines Fi = 500 N Win = (500N)(4.0m) = 2000 J di = 4.0 m A worker exerts a force of 500 N to push a 1500 N sofa 4.0 m along a ramp that is 1.0 m high. What is the ramp’s efficiency?GIVEN:Fi = 500 Ndi = 4.0 mFo = 1500 Ndo = 1.0 mWORK:Win = (500N)(4.0m) = 2000 JWout = (1500N)(1.0m) = 1500 JE = J × 1002000 JE = 75%4.0m500N1.0m1500N
26 15-3 MachinesMechanical Advantage is another way of expressing how efficient a machine is.Mechanical advantage is the ratio of resistance force to the effort force.
27 15-3 Machines Fe = 500 N MA = F resistance Fr = 1500 N F effort A worker exerts a force of 500 N to push a 1500 N sofa 4.0 m along a ramp that is 1.0 m high. What is the mechanical advantage of the ramp?GIVEN:Fe = 500 NFr = 1500 NWORK:MA = F resistanceF effortMA = 1500N500 NMA = 34.0m500N1.0m1500N
28 15-4 Simple & Compound Machines Simple MachinesThere are six types of simple machines. They are the:1 - Inclined plane2 - Wedge3 - Screw4 - Lever5 - Pulley6 - Wheel and axle
29 15-4 Simple & Compound Machines 1 - Inclined PlaneDef - A slanted surface used to raise an object.The force needed to lift the object decreases because the distance through which the object moves increases.
30 15-4 Simple & Compound Machines 2 - Wedge - Inclined Plane Type #1Def – an inclined plane that moves in order to push things apart.Tines of a fork, axe, knife.
31 15-4 Simple & Compound Machines 3 - Screw - Inclined Plane Type #2 -Def - An inclined plane wrapped around a central bar or cylinder, to form a spiral.Ex – screw –duh!!!
32 15-4 Simple & Compound Machines 4 - LeverDef - A rigid bar that is free to pivot, or move around a fixed point called a fulcrum.Ex – see sawThere are three main types (classes) of levers.
33 15-4 Simple & Compound Machines 3 classes of levers:First-class levers have the fulcrum placed between the load and the effort, as in the seesaw, crowbar, and balance scale.Ex - a see-saw or scissors
34 15-4 Simple & Compound Machines 3 classes of levers:Second-class levers have the load between the effort and the fulcrum.Ex - a wheel barrow
35 15-4 Simple & Compound Machines 3 classes of levers:Third-class levers have the effort placed between the load and the fulcrum. The effort always travels a shorter distance and must be greater than the load.Ex - a hammer or tweezer
36 15-4 Simple & Compound Machines 5 - PulleyDef - A rope, chain or belt wrapped around a grooved wheel.It can change the direction of force or the amount of force needed to move an object.
37 15-4 Simple & Compound Machines To calculate how much mechanical advantage a pulley system creates… Count the number of ropes that are attached to the MOVEABLE pulley – that # is your mechanical advantage!!!
38 15-4 Simple & Compound Machines 6 - Wheel & AxleDef - Made of 2 circular objects of different sizes attached together to rotate around the same axis.
39 15-4 Simple & Compound Machines Def - A combination of 2 or more simple machines