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Database Design: Normalization J.G. Zheng June 29 th 2005 DB Chapter 4

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2 Overview Normalization First three normal forms

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3 Introduction/Review Two perspectives to design database E-R Diagram (top-down) Normalization (bottom-up) Normalization is a process of efficiently modeling data, by analyzing relationships between attributes The goal is to remove redundancy and anomaly Usually a table is divided into 2 or more tables Combining the two perspectives in practice

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4 Normal Forms Normal forms are guidelines (steps) for the normalization process Unnormalized Form (UNF) 1st Normal Form (1NF) 2nd Normal Form (2NF) 3rd Normal Form (3NF) Boyce Codd Normal Form (BC/NF) 4th Normal Form (4NF) 5th Normal Form DK/NF Fewer anomalies... …but more tables Normalization

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5 Normalization – 1NF A relation is in 1NF if it satisfies the definition of a relation Review: what are the characteristics of a relation? Particularly No repeating value sets (single value property)

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6 Transforming to 1NF Row transformation (Figure 4.5 and 4.6 on page 287) UNF1NF

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7 Higher Normal Forms Normal forms higher than 1NF deal with functional dependence Identify which normal form the table is by analyzing the functional dependence between attributes (fields)

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8 Functional Dependence If each value of attribute A is associated with only one value of attribute B, we say A determines B Or, B is dependent on A Denoted as: A B Functional dependence describes relationships between attributes (not relations) Note: A (or B) could be a set of fields

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9 Functional Dependence Examples Dependence example For each SSN, there is only one corresponding first name (or last name), so: SSN determines FirstName SSN FirstName Non-dependence example Each instructor teaches multiple courses, so: InstructorId does not determines CourseNumber

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10 Functional Dependence and Keys By definition, primary key functionally determines all other attributes Primary key Surrogate key Composite primary key Dependency diagram ISBNTitlePubDateListPrice

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11 Functional Dependency Exercise CustomerNum CustomerName? {Street, City, State} Zip? CustomerName Balance? State (?) Zip RepNum ( ? ) CustomerName

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12 Normalization – 2NF A relation is in 2NF, if It is in 1 st normal formal, and All nonkey attributes must be functionally dependent on the whole primary key (Fully dependence) No partial dependence It also implies that a relation is in 2NF if the primary key is a single attribute

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13 2NF Identify primary key (PK) If PK consists of only one field, then it is in 2NF If PK is a composite key, then analyze functional dependence between part of primary key and other non-key attributes

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14 Normalization – 3NF A relation is in 3NF, if It is in 2 nd normal formal, and All attributes must, and only, be functionally dependent on candidate keys 3NF deals with [transitive dependence] A B C No transitive dependence

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15 3NF Identify primary key (PK) and Look for transitive dependence

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16 Some Practical Tips If there are attributes of two different entities in one table, there are usually anomalies To identify the normalization level, determine the primary key first; then look for partial dependence and transitive dependence

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17 Normalization Exercise 1 Which normal form is the above table in? A. 1NF B. 2NF C. 3NF D. UNF

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18 Normalization Exercise 2 Which normal form is the above table (2 nd one) in? A. 1NF B. 2NF C. 3NF D. UNF

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19 Normalization Exercise 3 Which normal form is the above table (first one) in? 1NF 2NF 3NF UNF

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20 Final database design with 3 tables

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21 Summary

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