5 Cf. Indigenous Australians Is their level of criminality a reflection of their indigenous identity and history?Or a reflection of the level of entrenched social disadvantage and alienation?
6 Entrenched Disadvantage: Similar patterns of disadvantage, namely child neglect, early schooling leaving, poor job skills, low unemployment can be found in the most disadvantaged mainstream Australian communities.
7 Specific cultural/ethnic contexts: For African/Australian communities and their young people, there are specific cultural, ethnic, historical dimensions that compound the general social context.So with earlier resettlement groups, such as Italians, Eastern Europeans, South East Asians, Middle Easterners.
8 Points of positive intervention: Broad definition of the problemPrevention better than cureEarly intervention rather than laterBroad based programs essentialAvoid stand alone criminal justice intervsAvoid short term projects: boomerangsSerious engagement with leaders
9 Challenges to crim. justice system: Must collaborate with other departmentsMust seriously consult local communityDiversion more likely to succeedRecruit diversity in culture personnelBroader training and inculturationModels of alternative dispute resolutionRestorative justice models effective
10 Secret to Successful Intervention: Must be multi-pronged responseIntegrated whole of govt. approachEducation/Health/Welfare/RecreationAvoid criminal justice interventionsDevelopment of local leadershipKey function of ethnic role modelsOngoing (not reactionary) engagement