Presentation on theme: "Universal Screening Illinois ASPIRE Alliance for School-based Problem-solving & Intervention Resources in Education Illinois ASPIRE is a State Personnel."— Presentation transcript:
1 Universal ScreeningIllinois ASPIRE Alliance for School-based Problem-solving & Intervention Resources in Education Illinois ASPIRE is a State Personnel Development Grant-funded initiative of the Illinois State Board of Education. All funding is from federal sources.1
2 Illinois ASPIRE Alliance for School-based Problem-solving & Intervention Resources in Education Project Goal : Establish and implement a coordinated, regionalized system of personnel development that will increase school systems’ capacity to provide early intervening services [with an emphasis on reading], aligned with the general education curriculum, to at-risk students and students with disabilities, as measured by improved student progress and performance.Illinois ASPIRE is a State Personnel Development Grant-funded initiative of ISBE. All funding is from federal sources.2
3 Illinois ASPIRE Alliance for School-based Problem-solving & Intervention Resources in Education Objectives:Deliver research-based professional development and technical assistance in Problem-Solving Service Delivery Systems, Response-to-Intervention (RTI), scientifically based reading instruction, and Standards Aligned Classrooms (SAC).Increase the participation of parents in decision-making across district sites.Incorporate professional development content into higher education general and special education preservice & graduate level curricula.Evaluate the effectiveness of project activities.Illinois ASPIRE is a State Personnel Development Grant-funded initiative of ISBE. All funding is from federal sources.3
4 Intended Participant Outcomes Understand Key Concepts and Vocabulary of Universal ScreeningDistinguish Between Referral-Driven Problem Solving and Universal Screening and Referral-Driven Problem-SolvingBe Able to Organize and Implement a Benchmark Assessment Process for Universal Screening Using CBM (or member of the CBM “Family” like DIBELS)4
5 UNIVERSAL SCREENING AND BENCHMARKING…. Always needs to occur in thecontext of all the problemsolving/RTI components inplace in the school
6 Foundational Concepts, Vocabulary, and Tools of RtI IT’S ALL ABOUT A MAJORCHANGEIN HOW WE GO ABOUTOUR BUSINESSOF HELPING KIDSResponse-to-Intervention and Problem-Solving are about:Thinking DifferentlyAbout Problems, Causes, and Solutions (Concepts)Talking DifferentlyAbout Problems, Causes, and Solutions (Vocabulary)Doing Some Things Differently (Tools and Behaviors)“You can’t do something different in the same way”. (Dr. George Batsche)
7 All the principles and components of RtI are about building a better support system for general education.DOING IT BETTERDOING IT DIFFERENTLYPROVIDING MORE LEVELS OF SUPPORT TO HELP ALL STUDENTSREALLOCATING RESOURCES/SKILLS IN DIFFERENT WAYS
8 Foundational Concepts: The Data, The Interventions, The Problem Solving Process
9 What is Response to Intervention (RtI) What is Response to Intervention (RtI) ? (Batsche, Elliott, Graden, Grimes, Kovaleski, Prasse, Reschly, Scharg, Tilley, 2005)•Identifying and providing high quality instruction and research-based interventions matched to students needs•Measuring rate of improvement (ROI) over time to make important educational decisions•Educators using ongoing student performance data to determine if an intervention is working. If it is not, it is time to do something different
10 An RtI Vision Any School, USA Efficient Teaming and Problem Solving at each TierData-Based Decisionsat each TierIntervention-rich environment at each Tier
11 And… For a child suspected of having a specific learning disability, the group MUST consider,.. as part of the evaluation …data that demonstrates that--…Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals, reflecting formal assessment of student progress during instruction, which was provided to the child’s parents.Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA)
12 Problem Solving Method Problem IdentificationIs there a problem? What is it?Plan EvaluationDid our plan work?Problem AnalysisWhy is it happening?Plan DevelopmentWhat shall we do about it?
13 Purposes of Assessment Who has problems? (Problem Identification)Why is the problem is occurring? (Problem Analysis)Is our instruction working to fix the problem?(Plan Development & Implementation)How well are we doing overall?(Plan Evaluation)ScreeningDiagnosticProgress MonitoringOutcome/AccountabilityTaken from Heartland AEA 11
14 Assessment Systems Used in RtI Models Taken from Heartland AEA 11
15 Assessment Systems Used in RtI Models ISATMAPAimswebDIBELSITBS, Terra NovaAimswebDIBELSCBE -RSLA, ISEL,QRIMAP, Run.Rec.Inform. PhonicsAimswebDIBELSSopris WesttoolFunctional Beh.AssessmentTaken from Heartland AEA 11
16 Use Scientifically Based Problem Identification & Progress Monitoring Tools NATIONAL CENTER ON STUDENT PROGRESS MONITORING RTI4SUCCESS.ORG)
17 Standards for Scientifically Based Problem ID and Progress Monitoring Have Been Established ReliabilityQuality of Good TestValiditySufficient Number of Alternate Forms and of Equal DifficultyEssential for Progress MonitoringEvidence of Sensitivity to Improvement or to Effects of interventionCritical for Progress MonitoringBenchmarks of Adequate Progress and Goal SettingRates of Improvement are SpecifiedEvidence of Impact on Teacher Decision Making instruction or Student Achievement;Critical for Formative EvaluationEvidence of Improved Instruction and Student Achievement;Gold Standard for Progress MonitoringLogistically Feasible--Low Cost, Efficient, AccurateCritical for IMPLEMENTATION
18 Members of the CBM “Family” Do ASSESSMENT TOOLSNot All Assessment Tools Schools Use Meet Accepted Psychometric StandardsMembers of the CBM “Family” Do
19 SAME MEASURES FOR US & B AND PROGRESS MONITORING (ROI)SYSTEMATIC PROBLEM SOLVINGPINPOINTING THE SPECIFICAREA OF DIFFICULTY,DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATIONEVERY WEEK OR 2TIER IIIMONTHLYSTRATEGIC MONITORING(ROI)TIER II1. UNIVERSAL SCREENINGAND BENCHMARKING:EARLY LITERACY MEASURES, ASDIBELS OR AIMSWEBCBM(KEY CRITICAL INDICATORS)TIER I3 X PERYEAR
20 Integrated Assessment Systems Not thisAssessmentInstructionThis is what we want..AssessmentInstructionAligning Assessment and Instruction
21 CBM-GOM are used as Universal Screeners- What is a Universal Screening? Given to everyoneMeasures Critical SkillsBriefRepeatableCheap and easy to administer and scoreTells us who and what tier needs intervention
22 Aimsweb Literacy Measures: Letter Naming FluencyLetter Sound FluencyPhoneme Segmentation FluencyNonsense Word FluencyOral Reading FluencyEarly Literacy
23 HEY,…WHY AREN’T WE CALLING THIS DIBELS?! DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills) are early literacy measures developed by the University of Oregon.AIMSWeb also has a set of Early Literacy Measures. They are almost identical to the DIBELS measures. The differences are not significant. Most RtI Aspire sites are using the administration, scoring, and probes from Aimsweb.
25 1. Aimsweb Letter Naming Fluency (Measures the number of letters a student can name in one minute.)Here are some letters. Begin here (point to the first letter) and tell me the names of as many letters as you can. If you come to a letter you don’t know, I’ll tell it to you. Are there any questions? Put your finger under the first letter. Ready, begin.In general, does the student have automaticity?fluency of naming?g N E Y R l V d H Z N d x S C n j H s S E n G h c i h B b O Y F p D L i q c D Q R v F J Z M P o p u l G A f V B P k m I V M e r y z a L U A d y q v w u T w N U H j K e r X T z Y X Z x f m W W s J I k l E R K g N E Y R l
26 2. Aimsweb Letter Sound Fluency (Measures the number of letter sounds a student can name in one minute.)Here are some letters. Begin here and tell me the sounds (with emphasis) of as many letters as you can. If you come to a sound you don’t know, I’ll tell it to you. Are there any questions? Put your finger under the first letter. Ready, begin.In general, can the student efficiently convert the visual symbol into an auditory one..with automaticity?g N E Y R l V d H Z N d x S C n j H s S E n G h c i h B b O Y F p D L i q c D Q R v F J Z M P o p u l G A f V B P k m I V M e r y z a L U A d y q v w u T w N U H j K e r X T z Y X Z x f m W W s J I k l E R K g N E Y R l
27 3. Aimsweb Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (Measures the number of phonemes students can segment in 1 minute.)I am going to say a word. After I say it, you tell me all the sounds in the word.So, if I say, “sam,” you would say /s/ /a/ /m/.Let’s try one. (one second pause). Tell me the sounds in “mop”Ok. Here is your first word.In general, does the student understand that words can be broken into its component phoneme/parts?
28 4. Aimsweb Nonsense Word Fluency (Measures the number of phonemes students can read in 1 minute.)Here are some more make-believe words (point to the student probe).Start here (point to the first word) and go across the page (point across the page).When I say, “begin”, read the words the best you can. Point to each letter and tell me the sound or read the whole word.Read the words the best you can. Put your finger on the first word. Ready, begin.In general, does the student have automaticity with mapping/recalling the sound-letter relationships?Can they ‘CRACK THE CODE’?
29 5. Aimsweb CBM Oral Reading Fluency (Measures student’s ability to read grade level passages accurately and fluently.)Please read this (point) out loud. If you get stuck, I will tell you the word so you can keep reading.When I say, “stop” I may ask you to tell me about what you read, so do your best reading.Start here (point to the first word of the passage). Begin.In general, has the student developed automatic phonemic awareness, phonics skills, and word recognition skills to be a fluent reader?
30 6. Aimsweb Maze(Measures student’s ability to read grade level passages accurately and fluently and comprehend.)When I say ‘Begin’, Iwant you to silently read a story. You will have 3 min. to read the story and complete the task. Listen carefully to the directions. Some of the words in the story are replaced with a group of 3 words. Your job is to circle the 1 word that makes the most sense in the story. Only 1 word is correct.In general, has the student developed automatic phonemic awareness, phonics skills, and word recognition skills to be a fluent and comprehending reader?
31 Why THESE Literacy Measures? Torgesen says that “Measures of letter knowledge continue to be the best single predictor of reading difficulties.”Marilyn J. Adams, in her article, “The Elusive Phoneme”, says that “a child’s level of phonemic awareness on entering school is widely held to be the strongest single determinant of the success that he or she will experience in learning to read.”Research has shown that Oral Reading Fluency is the best reading General Outcome Measure (GOM).
32 BIG IDEAS IN READING (National Reading Panel) PHONEMIC AWARENESSPHONICSFLUENCYVOCABULARYCOMPREHENSION
33 BIG IDEAS IN EARLY LITERACY SKILLS Phonemic Awareness:The awareness and understanding of the sound structure of our language, that ‘cat’ is composed of the sounds: /k/ /a/ /t/Alphabetic Principle: Based on 2 parts:Alphabetic Understanding. Words are composed of letters that represent sounds,andPhonological Recoding. Using systematic relationships between letters and phonemes (letter-sound correspondence) to retrieve the pronunciation of an unknown printed string or to spellAccuracy and Fluency with Connected Text.Readers who are not fluent at decoding are not able to focus their additional resources on comprehension
34 Big Ideas Drive the Train Big ideas drive the curriculum and instruction Big ideas drive the measures we usePhonemic AwarenessAlphabetic PrincipleAccuracy and Fluency with Connected TextRisk indicator that acquisition of crucial skills may be difficultPhoneme Segmentation FluencyLetter Sound FluencyNonsense Word FluencyCBM Oral Reading FluencyLetter Naming Fluency
35 IN GENERAL, ORAL READING FLUENCY MEASURES PROVIDE QUALITATIVE INFORMATION ABOUT 3 BROAD COMPETENCIES:1. RATE: Words read correctly-Above 75th%- consider differentiating instruction-Below 25%- consider need for Tier 2 interventions-Below 10%- further assess, do problem analysis, and consider need for Tier 2 and/or 3 interventions2. ACCURACY: Error rates-0-5 error rate= acceptable accuracy (skilled readers are 95% or better accurate)..-5-10% error rate= accuracy in question (90% accuracy)->10% error rate=unacceptable accuracy (<90% accuracy)3. COMPREHENSION-ADEQUATE FLUENCY AND RATE CORRELATE STRONGLY WITH ADEQUATE COMPREHENSION
36 Students with Some (Limited) Reading Skills Linking oral reading fluency with comprehension.These are in______and cHallinGinG times for anyone whose pRoFEshuNle res________ are ________in any way to liTiRucY outcomes among school children. For, in sport of all our new NaWLEGe about reading and reading iNstRukshun, there is a wide-speeded con______ that public EdgUkAshuN is not as eFfEktIve as it shood be in tEecHiNg all children to read.
37 These are interesting and challenging times for anyone whose professional responsibilities are related in any way to literacy outcomes among school children. For, in spite of all our new knowledge about reading and reading instruction, there is a wide-spread concern that public Education is not as effective as it should be in teaching all children to read.
38 ORF Informs Qualitative Features of Good Reading Is highly fluent (rate and accuracy)?2. Uses effective strategies to decode words?effective word attackContextAdjusts pacing (i.e., slows down and speeds upaccording to level of text difficulty)?of word(s)syntax (word order)semantics (word meaning)
39 ORF Informs Qualitative Features of Good Reading 4. Attends to prosodic features?inflection (pause, voice goes up and down)reads with expressionpunctuation (commas, exclamation points, etc.)predicts level of expression according to syntax5. Possesses prediction-orientation?seems to look ahead when readingreads at a sentence or paragraph level
40 ORF Informs Qualitative Features of Good Reading 6. Self-monitors what she/he is reading?Self-corrects if makes meaning distortion errors7. Makes only meaning preservation errors?more errors that preserve meaning (e.g., “house” for “home”)fewer meaning distortion errors (e.g., “mouse” for “house”)8. Automaticity on reread words.words that appear throughout text are read automatically (e.g., become “sight words”)
42 What Does R-CBM Measure? ALLThese Skills =General Reading Skill
43 General Outcome Measures (GOMs) From Other Fields Medicine measures height, weight, temperature, and/or blood pressure as the best ndicators of general health.Federal Reserve Board measures the Consumer Price IndexWall Street measures the Dow-Jones Industrial AverageCompanies report earnings per shareMcDonald’s measures how many hamburgers they sellReading measures Oral Reading Fluency as the best indicators of general reading health/achievement.Reliable measures that give us good feedbackGood baseline/starting pointWe can screen people using these measures very quickly.Every doctor does not use every measureFor many students, we can determine if students are doing well in an easy, efficient manner. They don’t all need extensive assessment if they are doing well.Don’t worry about the wrong things.CBM- assess everyone using quick measures.Can constantly monitor the efficacy of instructional programs on an ongoing basis.Simple, quick, reliable, and give a good indicator of how things are progressing over time
44 Things to Always Remember About CBM- GOM Are sensitive to improvement in brief intervals of timeAlso tell us how students earned their scores (qualitative information)Designed to be as short as possible to ensure its “do ability”Are linked to decision making for promoting positive achievement and Problem-Solving
45 Once Screening Data is Collected You Begin to Make Informed Decisions… Data-Based Decisions!District or School Level DecisionsClassroom or Group DecisionsIndividual Student Decisions
46 ALWAYS THINK ABOUT STUDENT NEEDS IN THIS FRAMEWORK: INDIVIDUALNEEDSTIER III.TIER II.CLASS NEEDSSMALL GROUP NEEDSDISTRICT NEEDSSCHOOL NEEDSGRADE LEVEL NEEDSTIER I.
47 Old System of Problem Solving Special EducationGeneral EducationAmount of Resources Needed To BenefitGeneral Educationwith SupportFLEX or P-S model—looked like TATWe created a team to address these students with typically sped staff leading the data collecting and intervention implementationStudents identified for individual problem solving were typically teacher or parent referred.Severity of Educational Need or Problem
48 Why hasn’t this old system of problem solving been very effective? Because we’ve been trying to solve students’ problems one student at a time.This has been impractical and too time intensive to be effective.
49 Bridging the Gap Core + Intensive Core + Supplemental Weekly Core Amount of Resources Needed To BenefitSystem wide p-s model..what is the difference?Weekly-Monthly3x/yearSeverity of Educational Need or Problem
50 Bridging the Gap Core + Intensive Core + Supplemental Weekly Core Amount of Resources Needed To BenefitDo you have this in place? What components do you have in place now?Weekly-Monthly3x/yearSeverity of Educational Need or Problem
51 Bridging the Gap Core + Intensive Core + Supplemental Weekly Core Amount of Resources Needed To BenefitDo you have this in place? What components do you have in place now?Weekly-Monthly3x/yearSeverity of Educational Need or Problem
52 Bridging the Gap Core + Intensive Core + Supplemental Weekly Core Amount of Resources Needed To BenefitDo you have this in place? What components do you have in place now?Weekly-Monthly3x/yearSeverity of Educational Need or Problem
53 Data-Based Decision Making Steps Problem IdentificationWhat is the Problem and Is it Significant?Plan EvaluationDid our plan work?Problem AnalysisWhy is it happening?Plan DevelopmentWhat shall we do about it?
54 Data Based Decision Making Targeted/Supplemental7%-15%Universal80%-90%Intensive3%-5%ACADEMICSBEHAVIOR
55 Data Based Decision Making Targeted/Supplemental15%Universal80%Intensive5%We want thesepercentages:Tier 1.: 50% or better on Aimsweb norms.Tier 3.: 25% or lower on Aimsweb norms.Tier 2: Everyone in between.
56 School-Wide Reading Improvement in a School Using Problem-Solving Courtesy of Christine Martin, Indian Prairie School District, IL
62 Some Potential Educational Need, Significant Educational Benefit: Maintain the General Education Program (Tier 2)IS THIS STUDENT REDUCING THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN HIMSELF AND GRADE LEVEL PEERS?Rate of Improvement that is REDUCING the Gap
63 BIG IDEA Use assessment data to determine student need and link that toresearch-based interventions thatmatch the needDATAINFORMS NEEDINTERVENTION