Presentation on theme: "THE ROLE OF ENZYMES ENZYMES ARE “BOSSY” PROTEINS."— Presentation transcript:
THE ROLE OF ENZYMES ENZYMES ARE “BOSSY” PROTEINS
ENZYMES ARE PROTEINS! Enzymes have names that often end in the suffix “-ase.” FOR EXAMPLE: LIPASE breaks down LIPIDS MALTASE breaks down MALTOSE PROTEASE breaks down PROTEINS
ENZYMES REACT WITH ONLY ONE (1) TYPE OF MATERIAL. THIS IS CALLED A SUBSTRATE. The SUBSTRATE has a SHAPE that “FITS” together with the shape of the enzyme.
THE SHAPE ON THE SURFACE OF THE ENZYME IS CALLED THE ACTIVE SITE. Notice that the SUBSTRATE has a shape that will “FIT” together with the ACTIVE SITE of the ENZYME. Together they will form an ENZYME-SUBSTRATE COMPLEX.
ENZYME-SUBSTRATE COMPLEX The enzyme-substrate complex is TEMPORARY.
ENZYME FUNCTION Enzymes control the RATE of chemical reactions. That means that they SPEED UP the reaction WITHOUT BEING CHANGED! Enzymes act as ORGANIC CATALYSTS. They lower the amount of energy needed for a reaction to occur. Enzymes are NOT changed by the reaction so they can be used over again and again and again….
LOCK AND KEY MODEL OF ENZYME ACTION If the KEY doesn’t have a SHAPE that FITS with the LOCK, then it will not open the lock. If the ENZYME and SUBSTRATE don’t FIT together, a REACTION will NOT occur.
ENZYMES DO NOT CHANGE!! After a reaction is over, the SUBSTRATE is changed, but the ENZYME remains the same. Notice that the substrate was changed at the end of the reaction. A - Enzyme B – Active Site C - Substrate D – Enzyme-Substrate Complex E – Enzyme F - Products
SYNTHESIS (Build up) Makes COMPLEX substances by joining simple ones together HYDROLYSIS (Break down) Sometimes called DIGESTION! Breaks complex molecules into smaller, simple ones THERE ARE TWO (2) KINDS OF ENZYME-CONTROLLED REACTIONS: