Europe After WWI Worldwide depression High war debt owed by Germany High inflation - very high prices Massive unemployment
Causes of WWII Political instability and economic devastation Rise of fascism The Allies Shift in U.S. war policy (Isolationist to Lend-Lease/economic aid to direct involvement) Tension between Japan and the U.S.
Political instability and economic devastation in Europe lead to the rise of FASCISM
FASCIST governments… Lead by dictator Blind loyalty Ruled with violence and fear Extreme nationalism Strong military Total control over government
At first, U.S. stays out of the war… ISOLATIONISM U.S is not involved By 1941, US helped Britain by providing war supplies in a program called Lend –Lease (economic help for Allies) Tensions because of Japanese aggression – FDR stops US industries from selling goods to Japan, and in 1941 FDR froze all Japanese assets in the U.S. Tojo becomes head of Japanese government in October 1941 and decided it was time to act against the US
Turning Point in Pacific 1942 US beats Japan in Battle of Midway –Japan now on the defensive
U.S.S.R beats Germany at the Battle of Stalingrad 1942-1943 Germany becomes weaker and weaker
Turning Point in Western Europe June 6, 1944 D-Day Allied forces land to take back Normandy, France
V-E Day Victory in Europe After D-Day, the Allies liberated France, Belgium, and the Netherlands and pushed their way into Germany. Soviet forces pushed in from the east and the two groups met in Berlin. Hitler committed suicide. May 8, 1945 Germany surrenders.
The Holocaust a systematic or planned attempt to rid the world of Jewish people
Aryan-Hitler’s idea of the perfect race blond hair and blue eyes
Anti-Semitism a feeling of hatred towards the Jews
Kristallnacht “The Night of Broken Glass” Nazi soldiers destroyed the stores and synagogues of the Jews people
pogroms killing of Jews in certain towns as a way to embarrass, torture and punish the Jews
Final Solution Nazis boycott Jewish stores Nazis take away Jewish political rights taken – no longer citizens and could not vote Nazis violently attacked and burned synagogues, staged book burnings Nazis “final solution” was extermination – mass murder of Jews
Concentration camps like Auschwitz and Buchenwald 6 million Jews were killed 1 ½ million Jewish children were killed Millions of blacks, gypsies, homosexuals and people with physical and mental handicaps were killed
Home-Front 1941-1945 Blacks, Hispanics, and Japanese Americans served with honor in the military despite discrimination.
Internment camps Japanese-Americans either served in the army or were sent to live in “camps” that were only for the Japanese- U.S. was afraid of Japanese spies