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Local Schools, Local Decisions and ESL

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1 Local Schools, Local Decisions and ESL
ESL & Community Languages Teachers Forum, NSW Teachers Federation, 21 May, 2013 Local Schools, Local Decisions and ESL Michael Michell, School of Education, University of New South Wales

2 Two problem agendas for ESL:
ESL is a program without a policy framework School-based management deregulates ESL

3 ESL as a specific - purpose program - key elements:
Program focus – English learning for full participation in the mainstream b. Target group – LBOTE students learning English as their second/additional language c. Program structure – ESL New Arrivals & ESL General Support d. Funding – tied funds, funding mechanisms (NAP per capita grant, GS funding index) e. Program delivery & evaluation – staffing, curriculum, teacher education, program reviews, English proficiency measures (ESL Scales, Bandscales) f. Accountability reporting – financial acquital, program participation, outcomes reporting g. Professional knowledge & expertise – pedagogy, professional development, TESOL qualifications

4 ESL endings – a Commonwealth ‘vanishing act’ in three parts
Program elements 1. National equity program (NEP) 2. Targeted and National Priority Programs 3. Schools SPPs, National partnerships 2008 – 2013 FOCUS ESL for full participation in the mainstream improving the literacy outcomes of disadvantaged students TARGET GROUP ESL students schools with concentrations of disadvantaged students STRUCTURE ESL NAP & GS components linked ESL NAP component separated ESL GS amalgamated (with Disadvantaged & Early Learning components) ESL NAP separated gov/non-gov ESL NAP gov amalgamated with Schools SSPs (low SES, Literacy & Numeracy NPs?) FUNDING tied grants, NAP per capita, GS index ESL GS funding broadbanded, new single formula (ESL index + literacy performance? historical data?) ESL NAP funding disbanded, contract- project-based funding PROGRAM DELIVERY & EVALUATION staffing, curriculum, teacher dev, reviews, proficiency measures whole-school intervention, state-based ESL staffing, assessment, curriculum, teacher development National Curriculum, EALD progression EALD levels EXPERTISE pedagogy, professional development, qualifications pedagogy? professional development? qualifications? PROGRAM REPORTING ESL financial acquitals, students, activity no ESL reporting, student literacy performance state/national literacy testing no ESL reporting, student literacy performance NAPLAN, MySchool

5 ESL New Arrivals per capita funding
Government & non-Government

6 ESL – the five Ds of policy displacement and erasure
dislocation - NAP & GS, language, resettlement, multiculturalism deregulation - tied funding ‘broadbanding’ disbanding disappearance - ESL students NESB LBOTE, ‘disadvantaged’ dissipation - language acquisition focus literacy, low SES dissolution - recurrent program short-term projects

7 NSW school-based management Local Schools, Local Decisions – the agenda
Public sector management reform (C’wealth and state) School-based Management Pilots - Independent Review of the School-based Management Pilot (ARTD Consultants, 2011) - Final Report of the Evaluation of the School-based Management Pilot (DEC 2012) Empowering Local Schools (ELS) program - ‘initial implementation’ by 229 schools Resource Allocation Mechanism (RAM) Learning Management Business Reform (LMBR) program

8 Local Schools, Local Decisions – Local destruction
Managing resources “Instead of allocating resources like staff and equipment from the centre using complex formulas, schools will have their own budgets and have flexibility to allocate resources according to locally determined priorities.” Staff in our schools “Schools also need more flexibility to design both teaching and support roles. Within our class size policy and Board of Studies curriculum requirements, schools will chose the number and roles of staff within their budgets to best meet their students needs.” One budget, one plan “The new funding model will replace the centrally run programs targeting different students needs that often required schools to do separate plans, reports and budgets for each program. Schools will have one budget, guided by a single school plan focused on delivering better outcomes for students.”

9 localization of needs = casualization of response
LSLD impacts on ESL - from program to project localization of needs = casualization of response “Students are, of course, unique; their needs and expectations are unique. However, our system predominantly operates on a ‘one size fits all’ mantra.” “…no more little plans - one for this program, one for that program - no more discrete reporting of separate budgets …. just the one budget guided by a single school plan.” Adrian Piccoli, Minister for Education “Let me be very clear, the ‘one size fits all’ approach to school staffing, where we ignore the unique needs of some school communities and some students, must end.” “…of course, from time to time there will be a need for schools to employ a temporary teacher to meet the specific needs of a particular cohort of students, or to assist with particular initiatives.” Michele Bruniges, Director General, DEC

10 Local Schools, Local Decisions – ESL impacts
Deregulation of ESL funds via RAM - untied, ‘flexible’, not targeted, resourcing - redirection of purpose and funding - resource wastage, ‘disutilities of small scale’ Localization of state-wide system provision via LSLD - discoordination, fragmentation - erosion, discontinuation - professional isolation Residualization of ESL programs via ELS - projects, not programs - discontinuous, marginalized - casualization Individualization of need - individuals, not groups - personalised, ‘unique’, only knowable locally - customized learning = local programs only

11 local autonomy – flexible staffing
LSLD impacts on ESL - from program to project local autonomy – flexible staffing NSW Primary Principals Association & NSW Secondary Principals Council’s joint position on Local Schools, Local Decisions (July 2012) “NSW PPA and NSWSPC support more flexibility in the allocation of staffing resources within schools, including determining the mix of permanent and temporary staff, to better the needs of their students.” (p.3) “The Principal, in consultation with the school community, should be empowered to vary the mix of specialist teaching positions when vacancies occur, based on student need, without decreasing the equivalent notional entitlements.’’(p.4)

12 LSLD impacts on ESL – what happened to the system?
Response to the Minister for Education on the New Model of Support for Schools from the NSW Primary Principals Association, NSW Secondary Principals Council’ & Public Schools Principals Forum (Dec 2012) “There is ongoing concern regarding the loss of corporate knowledge when people leave positions in State and Regional Offices and /or when school programs are cut. This will have a direct impact on students. The concept of schools or Communities of Schools ‘brokering’ their own specialists for ESL/CLOs etc. has the potential to be fragmented, ineffective and time consuming. With the loss of the expertise mentioned above, who will fill a coordinating role to ensure effective delivery at a school level?” (p.3) “The overwhelming view of Principals is that this model does not support Principals and schools to do their job. The model appears to be driven and conceptualised by the need for schools to fit a business model and this concern is reflected in reports emanating from LSLD and LMBR workshops, whereby what works for schools is sometimes overwhelmed by what fits the business model or Treasury reporting requirements.’’(p.4)

13 Missing in Action? Principles of Multiculturalism
COMMUNITY RELATIONS COMMISSION AND PRINCIPLES OF MULTICULTURALISM ACT SECT 3 Principles of multiculturalism Multiculturalism is founded on the following principles (the "principles of multiculturalism"): (a) the people of New South Wales are of different linguistic, religious, racial and ethnic backgrounds who, either individually or in community with other members of their respective groups, are free to profess, practise and maintain their own linguistic, religious, racial and ethnic heritage, (b) all individuals in New South Wales, irrespective of their linguistic, religious, racial and ethnic backgrounds, should demonstrate a unified commitment to Australia, its interests and future and should recognise the importance of shared values governed by the rule of law within a democratic framework, (c) all individuals in New South Wales should have the greatest possible opportunity to contribute to, and participate in, all aspects of public life in which they may legally participate, (d) all individuals and institutions should respect and make provision for the culture, language and religion of others within an Australian legal and institutional framework where English is the common language, (e) all individuals should have the greatest possible opportunity to make use of and participate in relevant activities and programmes provided or administered by the Government of New South Wales, (f) all institutions of New South Wales should recognise the linguistic and cultural assets in the population of New South Wales as a valuable resource and promote this resource to maximise the development of the State. Parliament recognises that the principles of multiculturalism are based on citizenship. The expression "citizenship" is not limited to formal Australian citizenship, but refers to the rights and responsibilities of all people in a multicultural society. The principles of multiculturalism are the policy of the State. Accordingly, each public authority must observe the principles of multiculturalism in conducting its affairs. It is the duty of the chief executive officer of each public authority to implement the provisions of this section within the area of his or her administration.

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