Late 18 c : French Economic Advantages VNapoleonic Code. VFrench communal law. ) Free contracts ) Open markets ) Uniform & clear commercial regulations.
Presentation on theme: "By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY"— Presentation transcript:
1By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY TheIndustrialRevolutionBy: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
2Late 18c: French Economic Advantages Napoleonic Code.French communal law.Free contractsOpen marketsUniform & clear commercial regulationsStandards weights & measures.Established technical schools.The government encouraged & honored inventors & inventions.Bank of France European model providing a reliable currency.
3French Economic Disadvantages Years of warSupported the American Revolution.French Revolution.Early 19c Napoleonic WarsHeavy debts.High unemployment soldiers returning from the battlefronts.French businessmen were afraid to take risks.
9Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure Early CanalsBritain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure
10Mine & Forge [1840-1880] More powerful than water is coal. More powerful than wood is iron.Innovations make steel feasible.“Puddling”  – “pig iron.”“Hot blast”  – cheaper, purer steel.Bessemer process  – strong, flexible steel.
16Richard Arkwright: “Pioneer of the Factory System” The “Water Frame”
17Factory ProductionConcentrates production in one place [materials, labor].Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets].Requires a lot of capital investment [factory, machines, etc.] more than skilled labor.Only 10% of English industry in
18Textile Factory Workers in England 18132400 looms150, 000 workers183385, 000 looms200, 000 workers1850224, 000 looms>1 million workers
60Peterloo Massacre, 1819British Soldiers Fire on British Workers: Let us die like men, and not be sold like slaves!
61The Chartists Key Chartist settlements Centres of Chartism Chartist settlementsCentres of ChartismArea of plug riots, 1842
62The “Peoples’ Charter” Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett.Radical campaign for Parliamentary reform of the inequalities created by the Reform Bill of 1832.Votes for all men.Equal electoral districts.Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament [MPs] be property owners.Payment for Members of Parliament.Annual general elections.The secret ballot.
63The Chartists A female Chartist A physical force— Chartists arming for the fight.
64Anti-Corn Law League, 1845Give manufactures more outlets for their products.Expand employment.Lower the price of bread.Make British agriculture more efficient and productive.Expose trade and agriculture to foreign competition.Promote international peace through trade contact.
66Thomas Malthus Population growth will outpace the food supply. War, disease, or famine could control population.The poor should have less children.Food supply will then keep up with population.
67David Ricardo “Iron Law of Wages.” When wages are high, workers have more children.More children create a large labor surplus that depresses wages.
68The Utilitarians: Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill The goal of society is the greatest good for the greatest number.There is a role to play for government intervention to provide some social safety net.
70The Socialists: Utopians & Marxists People as a society would operate and own the means of production, not individuals.Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few.Tried to build perfect communities [utopias].
71Br. Govt. Responseto the DislocationCreated byIndustrialization
72Government ResponseAbolition of slavery in the colonies in 1832 [to raise wages in Britain].Sadler Commission to look into working conditionsFactory Act  – child labor.New Poor Law  – indoor relief.Poor houses.Reform Bill  – broadens the vote for the cities.
80The Politics of Industrialization State ownership of some industries.RRs Belgium & most of Germany.Tariffs British Corn Laws.National Banks granted a monopoly on issuing bank notes.Bank of England.Bank of France.Companies required to register with the government & publish annual budgets.New legislation to:Establish limited liability.Create rules for the formation of corporations.Postal system.Free trade zones Ger. Zollverein
81Bibliographic Sources “Images of the Industrial Revolution.” Mt. Holyoke College.“The Peel Web: A Web of English History.”