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 Indust. Rev. = Mass production of goods by machine power Begins in late 18 th cent. & carries into 20-21 st cents  Pop. Shift from rural to urban 

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Presentation on theme: " Indust. Rev. = Mass production of goods by machine power Begins in late 18 th cent. & carries into 20-21 st cents  Pop. Shift from rural to urban "— Presentation transcript:

1  Indust. Rev. = Mass production of goods by machine power Begins in late 18 th cent. & carries into st cents  Pop. Shift from rural to urban  Capitalism = dominant economic system

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3 That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte

4 The Enclosure Movement

5 “ Enclosed ” Lands Today

6 Early Canals Britain ’ s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure - connected waterways - transported resources coal and finished products

7 Metals, Woolens, & Canals

8 “ Fossil Fuels ” Revolution - Coal & oil greatly increased energy available to humans - Dev. of machines, steam engines, internal combustion engines

9 Coalfields & Industrial Areas

10 18001 ton of coal50, 000 miners tons200, 000 miners million tons500, 000 miners million tons1, 200, 000 miners Coal Mining in Britain:

11 Young Coal Miners

12 Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers”

13 Factory Production ) Concentrates production in one place [materials, labor]. ) Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets]. ) Requires a lot of capital investment [factory, machines, etc.] more than skilled labor. ) Only 10% of English industry in 1850.

14 Textile Factory Workers in England looms 150, 000 workers , 000 looms 200, 000 workers , 000 looms>1 million workers

15 The Factory System × Rigid schedule. × hour day. × Dangerous conditions. × Mind-numbing monotony.

16 Textile Factory Workers in England

17 Young “ Bobbin-Doffers ”

18 Spreading of New/Improved Methods of Production to Other Regions - U.S., Russia, Japan industrialize

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20 James Hargreave ’ s “ Spinny Jenny ”

21 The Power Loom

22 - Telegraph - Invented by Samuel Morse - greatly improved communications between/within: - businesses, cities, countries

23 Interchangeable parts – speeds production; less skill required – developed by Eli Whitney – Cotton Gin - Rifle production also

24 James Watt ’ s Steam Engine

25 Steam Tractor

26 Steam Ship

27 An Early Steam Locomotive

28 Later Locomotives

29 The Impact of the Railroad

30 “ The Great Land Serpent ” - Impact = access of goods to more people - lower prices = increased demand for production

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32 Social Impacts of Industrial Revolution  Most benefits = Middle class (bourgeoisie) – bankers, merchants, factory owners  Most growth = Working class Proletariat – poor treatment & pay  Urbanization = pollution, overcrowding, disease  Early exploitation of woman & child labor.

33 Stereotype of the Factory Owner

34 “ Upstairs ” / “ Downstairs ” Life

35 “ 2 nd Industrial Revolution ”  Improvements in:  Steel  Chemicals  Electricity  Precision machinery Bessemer Process

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37 Women in Industrial Revolution  Early 1800 ’ s = Equal # of women in factories.  Late 1800 ’ s = Increased wages (more desirable to men) and labor laws restricting women ’ s work = more women staying home.  Domestic sphere for women develops.

38 Factory Wages in Lancashire, 1830 Age of Worker Male Wages Female Wages under 11 2s 3d. 2s. 4d s. 1d. 4s. 3d s. 2d. 7s. 3d s. 2d. 8s. 5d s. 4d. 8s. 7d s. 8d. 8s. 9d s. 7d. 9s. 8d s. 3d. 9s. 3d s. 7d. 8s. 10d s. 4d. 8s. 4d s. 6d. 6s. 4d.

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45 Industrial Staffordshire

46 Problems of Polution The Silent Highwayman

47 The New Industrial City

48 Early-19c London by Gustave Dore

49 Worker Housing in Manchester

50 Factory Workers at Home

51 Workers Housing in Newcastle Today

52 The Life of the New Urban Poor: A Dickensian Nightmare!

53 Private Charities: Soup Kitchens

54 Private Charities: The “ Lady Bountifuls ”

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56 The Luddites: Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest] Attacks on the “frames” [power looms].

57 The Luddite Triangle

58 The Luddites

59 The Neo-Luddites Today

60 British Soldiers Fire on British Workers: Let us die like men, and not be sold like slaves! Peterloo Massacre, 1819

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62 The Socialists: Utopians & Marxists × People as a society would operate and own the means of production, not individuals. × Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few. × Tried to build perfect communities [utopias].

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64 Government Response k Abolition of slavery in the colonies in 1832 [to raise wages in Britain]. k Sadler Commission to look into working conditions  Factory Act [1833] – child labor. k New Poor Law [1834] – indoor relief.  Poor houses. k Reform Bill [1832] – broadens the vote for the cities.

65 British Reform Bill of 1832

66 British Reform Bills

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68 By 1850 : Zones of Industrialization on the European Continent ùNortheast France. ùBelgium. ùThe Netherlands. ùWestern German states. ùNorthern Italy ùEast Germany  Saxony

69 Industrialization By 1850

70 Railroads on the Continent

71 Share in World Manufacturing Output:

72 The Politics of Industrialization ù State ownership of some industries. ) RRs  Belgium & most of Germany. ù Tariffs  British Corn Laws. ù National Banks granted a monopoly on issuing bank notes. ) Bank of England. ) Bank of France. ù Companies required to register with the government & publish annual budgets. ù New legislation to: ) Establish limited liability. ) Create rules for the formation of corporations. ù Postal system. ù Free trade zones  Ger. Zollverein


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