Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents Rocks and Weathering How Soil Forms"— Presentation transcript:
1 Table of Contents Rocks and Weathering How Soil Forms Soil Conservation
2 Chemical Weathering - Rocks and Weathering As weathering breaks apart rock, the surface area exposed to weathering increases.
3 Which Weathered Faster? - Rocks and WeatheringWhich Weathered Faster?The graph shows the rate of weathering for two identical pieces of limestone that weathered in different locations.
4 Which Weathered Faster? - Rocks and WeatheringWhich Weathered Faster?Reading Graphs:What does the x-axis of the graph represent?Time in years
5 Which Weathered Faster? - Rocks and WeatheringWhich Weathered Faster?Reading Graphs:What does the y-axis of the graph represent?The thickness of stone lost to weathering
6 Which Weathered Faster? - Rocks and WeatheringWhich Weathered Faster?Reading Graphs:How much thickness did Stone A lose in 1,000 years? How much thickness did Stone B lose in the same period?Stone A lost about 8.5 millimeters; Stone B lost slightly more than 4 millimeters.
7 Which Weathered Faster? - Rocks and WeatheringWhich Weathered Faster?Drawing Conclusions:Which stone weathered at a faster rate?Stone A weathered at a faster rate.
8 Which Weathered Faster? - Rocks and WeatheringWhich Weathered Faster?Inferring:Since the two identical pieces of limestone weathered at different rates, what can you infer caused the difference in their rates of weathering?They were exposed to different climate conditions.
9 Relating Cause and Effect - Rocks and WeatheringRelating Cause and EffectA cause makes something happen. An effect is what happens. As you read, identify the causes of chemical weathering. Write them in a graphic organizer like the one below.CausesOxygenEffectChemical weatheringWaterAcid rain
10 Click the PHSchool.com button for an activity about weathering. - Rocks and WeatheringMore on WeatheringClick the PHSchool.com button for an activity about weathering.
12 What Is Soil? - How Soil Forms Loam, a type of soil, is made up of air, water, and organic matter as well as materials from weathered rock.
13 What Is Soil? - How Soil Forms Soil particles range in size from gravel to clay particles too small to be seen by the unaided eye. The sand, silt, and clay shown here have been enlarged.
14 The Process of Soil Formation - How Soil FormsThe Process of Soil FormationSoil forms as rock is broken down by weathering and mixes with other materials on the surface. Soil is constantly being formed wherever bedrock is exposed.
15 Soil Layers Activity - How Soil Forms Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about soil layers.
16 Soil Types - How Soil Forms Scientists classify the different types of soil into major groups based on climate, plants, and soil composition.
17 Living Organisms in Soil - How Soil FormsLiving Organisms in SoilSome soil organisms make humus, the material that makes soil fertile. Other soil organisms mix the soil and make spaces in it for air and water.
18 Building Vocabulary - How Soil Forms A definition states the meaning of a word or phrase by telling about its most important feature or function. Carefully read the definition of each Key Term and also read the neighboring sentences. Then write a definition of each Key Term in your own words.Key Terms:Examples:loamsoil horizontopsoilKey Terms:Key Terms:Examples:subsoillitterdecomposerExamples:soilThe B horizon, often called subsoil, usually consists of clay and other particles washed down from the A horizon, but little humus.Soil is the loose, weathered material on Earth’s surface in which plants can grow.Soil that is made up of about equal parts of clay, sand, and silt is called loam.bedrockA soil horizon is a layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above or below it.Bedrock is the solid layer of rock beneath the soil.As plants shed leaves, they form a loose layer called litter.humusHumus is a dark-colored substance that forms as plant and animal remains decay.The A horizon is made up of topsoil, a crumbly, dark brown soil that is a mixture of humus, clay, and other materials.Decomposers are organisms that break the remains of dead organisms into smaller pieces and digest them with chemicals.fertilityThe fertility of soil is a measure of how well the soil supports plant growth.
19 Click the Video button to watch a movie about soil. - How Soil FormsSoilClick the Video button to watch a movie about soil.
21 Soil Damage and Loss - Soil Conservation Wind erosion is one cause of soil loss. For example, wind erosion contributed to the Dust Bowl on the Great Plains. The Dust Bowl ruined farmland in western Oklahoma and parts of the surrounding states. Wind blew dry particles of soil into great clouds of dust that traveled thousands of kilometers.
22 Previewing Visuals - Soil Conservation Before you read, preview Figure 13, “The Dust Bowl”. Then write two questions that you have about the photo and map in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, answer your questions.The Dust BowlQ. Where was the Dust Bowl?A. The Dust Bowl was in western Oklahoma and parts of the surrounding states.Q. What caused the Dust Bowl?A. Farming practices exposed the soil so that in times of drought the topsoil quickly dried out, turned to dust, and blew away.
23 Links on Soil Conservation Click the SciLinks button for links on soil conservation.
24 Click the Video button to watch a movie about soil conservation.
26 Graphic Organizer Soil Horizons Bedrock begins to weather The C horizon forms as bedrock breaks apart.The A horizon develops from the C horizon where plants grow in it.The B horizon develops as clay and minerals wash down from the A horizon.