3 What is a mineral? Naturally occurring Inorganic Solid Crystalline structureDefinite Chemical Composition
4 Naturally Occurring Must be formed by a process in the natural world. Not man made.
5 InorganicCan not be made of a material that was once part of a living thing.
6 SolidAlways has a definite volume and a definite shape.
7 Crystal StructureParticles line up in a pattern that repeats over and over again.The repeating pattern of a mineral’s particles form a solid called a crystal.A crystal has flat sides called faces.
8 Definite Chemical Composition Always contains the certain elements in definite proportions.Almost all minerals are crystals.Quartz is a compound of SiO2.Some minerals are not compounds. Copper, Silver and Gold are pure solid elements of metals.
9 Identifying MineralsEach mineral has characteristic properties that can be used to identify it.ColorStreakLusterDensityHardnessCrystal SystemsCleavage and FractureSpecial Properties
13 Streak A streak test can help identify a mineral. The streak of a mineral is the color of its powder.Mineral color may vary but its streak will not vary.Mineral color and streak color are often different.
19 Crystal Systems Grows atom by atom to form the minerals structure. 6 groups based on the number and angle of the crystal faces.Crystals grown in open spaces can be perfectly formed.Crystals grown in tight spaces can be imperfectly formed.
20 Crystal Systems Shape a mineral takes if grown unimpeded Mineral Java Applet
29 CrystallizationThe process by which atoms are arranged to form a material with a crystal structure.Can form in two ways by crystallization of molten material or by crystallization of materials dissolved in water.
30 Minerals From Magma and Lava Magma is molten material from inside earth that hardens to form rock.Cools slowly over many thousands of years.Large Crystals
31 Lava is magma that reaches the Earth’s surface Forms rock when it hardens and coolsCool quickly and forms small crystals
32 Minerals From Solution: When elements and compounds that are dissolved in water Minerals formed by evaporationWhen water evaporates and leaves behind crystalsWhen ancient seas evaporated deposits of halite were left behindCalcium and Gypsum are also formed this way
33 Minerals From Hot Water Solutions Magma can heat underground waterThe elements and compounds in the water leave the solution and crystallize when the water begins to coolWater often flows in cracks in the rock layersVeins occur when the water in between the rocks cool and leave behind metals or crystals
35 Uses of MineralsMinerals are the source of gemstones, metals, and a variety of materials used to make many products.
36 Gemstones: hard, colorful mineral that has a brilliant or glassy luster. Is durable and rare. Once cut and polished, it is called a gem. Used for jewelry, decoration, mechanical parts, and for grinding and polishing
37 Metals: Minerals such as aluminum, iron, copper or silver Metals: Minerals such as aluminum, iron, copper or silver. Can be stretched, flattened or hammered. Are generally not as hard as gemstones
38 Uses for MineralsFoodMedicinesFertilizersBuilding Materials
39 Producing Metals From Minerals To produce metal from a mineral, a rock containing the mineral, called an ore, must be located through prospection and mined, or removed from the ground. Then the rock must be processed to extract the metal.
40 ProspectingAnyone who searches, or prospects, for an ore deposit
41 Mining: 3 Types of MinesStrip Mines: earthmoving equipment scrapes away soil to expose the ore.
42 Open Pit MiningMiners use giant earthmoving equipment to dig a tremendous pit and removing ore deposits.
43 Shaft MinesA network of tunnels that extend deep into the ground, following the veins of ore
44 SmeltingThe process of separating the metal in the ore from the other elements that are present in the ore.
45 AlloysA solid mixture of 2 or more elements, at least one of them a metal.Must have the characteristic properties of a metal.Stainless Steel is an alloy.