Presentation on theme: "Drt 6455 eCommerce Law lesson 1 – Introduction associate professor faculty of law university of montreal university of montreal chair in e-Security and."— Presentation transcript:
drt 6455 eCommerce Law lesson 1 – Introduction associate professor faculty of law university of montreal university of montreal chair in e-Security and e-Business law
2 1.0 course presentation me
3 1.0 course presentation you ? Law Degree eCommerce Course Internet Usage 1.Web 2.Social network 3.Etc.
6 1.0 course presentation calendar -tuesday June 3rd, thursday June 5th, tuesday June 10th, thursday June 12th, tuesday June 17th, thursday June 19th, monday June 23th, thursday June 26th, 2008
7 1.0 course presentation assesment See Two (2) blog posts 10% Contribution in class 10% 2 Opinions 30% Final Paper 50% cheating Be Careful with cheating
8 1.0 course presentation general / question -3 hours each lesson (+ or -) -2 breaks -Etc.
9 1.0 course presentation course description -Introduction -Security and Law -eCommerce and Liability -eContract -Internet and Privacy -IT and Intellectual Property -Web 2.0 and Law -Electronic Dispute Resolution
course presentation Lesson 1 presentation - Definitions -Legal sources -Legal History -Is IT Law different from more traditional areas ?
definitions Law eCommerce Security
definitions At the biginning … Law is not Just … –Social Norms –Community-based Approach (tribe) Societies became more and more complex with some need for organization (structure) Solutions Platon: education process Aristotle: norms
definitions Law versus Morality –Classical Vision Jeremy Bentham ( ) proposed a clear distinction between Morality (relationship between God and Human) and Law (humans between them)Jeremy Bentham –Modern Vision Law is moral –Legal Fundamentals (EX: Criminal Code : « Thou shalt not kill ») –Judges Interpretation (EX: Dell and Suprem Court of Canada)Dell Links between Law and Morality are function of States culture »State-oriented countries »Place of private actors (press, association, etc..) »EX: Napster Case (place of Lobbying, of communities) »EX: New Copyright law in Canada (EX: Michael Geist Crusade)Michael Geist
definitions Law versus Justice –Distinction between both (19th century) –Links (porosity) between both (20th century) EX: Canadian Charter of Rights EX: Business Law –SCC = Houle (1990)Houle –SCC = Soucisse (1981)Soucisse Law versus Equity –EX: 1434 CCQ: « A contract validly formed binds the parties who have entered into it not only as to what they have expressed in it but also as to what is incident to it according to its nature and in conformity with usage, equity or law. »CCQ
definitions Secondary Sources and Law –Classical History (EX: Rome Convention) Comparative Law (EX: Napster Case)Napster Case Philosophy (EX: contrat) –Modern Sociology (EX: Contractual usage and spam) Political Perspective (EX: copyright) Management (EX: Publicity Law) Computer Science (EX: security)
definitions Law is … Law Functions –Classical: endorsement / Infraction Management EX: Criminal Law EX: Privacy –Modern: facilitation / promote eCommerce EX: Contract Law –1387 CCQ1387 –Dell Case –Commonly both
definitions Law Characteristics Generality Impersonality Permanent Political mechanism ? (state-oriented?) EX: 1372 CCQ: « An obligation arises from a contract or from any act or fact to which the effects of an obligation are attached by law. »1372
definitions Law Categories –Private Law Civil Law Commercial Law Consumer Law Criminal Law Etc. –Public Law Constitutional Law Administrative Law Taxation Law Public International Law Etc.
definitions Law and State –Legislative Branch –Executive Branch –Judicial Branch Supreme Court of Canada Court of Appeal Municipal Court Court of Quebec chambre criminelle Superior Court Court of Quebec Civile chamber Court of Quebec Youth Division Administrative tribunals Federal Court Federal Administrative tribunals Federal Court of Appeal
definitions eCommerce definition –Depending from the structure EDI (Large Industry) Marketplace (EX: Music example) Point to Point (EX: Contract) –Depending from actors B2B B2C B2G
definitions eSecurity definition –Advantages Universal Feasable –Inconvenient New Many standards Vulnerability –Myths Cheaper (EX: SOX) Easy
legal instruments 1. Constitution –The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982) Life, liberty and security of person ART.7Life, liberty and security of person Freedom of expression ART. 2 b)Freedom of expression Freedom of association ART. 2d)Freedom of association Freedom of Conscience and Religion ART. 2 a)Freedom of Conscience and Religion Equality before and under law and equal protection and benefit of law ART. 15Equality before and under law and equal protection and benefit of law EX: –Yahoo! Case in France and United States –Blog Liability (Lesson 7) –Charter of human rights and freedoms, R.S.Q. c. C-12 (1975)Charter of human rights and freedoms
legal instruments 2. Treaties –«Real» Treaties WIPO Copyright Treaty (1996)WIPO Copyright Treaty WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT) (1996)WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT) United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts (2005)United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts Convention on Cybercrime (2001)Convention on Cybercrime –«False» Treaties UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce with Guide to Enactment (1996)UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce with Guide to Enactment OECD Papers –On Cyberconsumer Protection –On Privacy UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Signatures with Guide to Enactment (2001)UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Signatures with Guide to Enactment Council of Europe and Privacy Protection United Nations Guidelines concerning Computerized Personal Data Files (1990) Special texts of European Union; Directives examples »eCommerce 2000 »Electronic Signature 1999 »Copyright 2001
legal instruments 3. Laws –Legal framework for information technology, An Act to establish a, R.S.Q. c. C-1.1Legal framework for information technology, An Act to establish –Copyright ActCopyright Act –CCQ.CCQ –Loi sur la protection des renseignements personnels Provincial (Public Sector)Provincial Provincial (Private Sector)Provincial Federal (both sectors)Federal –Securities ActSecurities Act
legal instruments 4. Regulations –Act: Unilateral general Impersonal Empowered by a law –EX: Article 62 and f. of et suivants Legal framework for information technology, An Act to establish a, R.S.Q. c. C-1.1 Legal framework for information technology, An Act to establish a Regulations of Securities Law
legal instruments Jurisprudence –Decision Structure Difference between common law / droit civil from Europe Holding / Obiter dicta Facts Developpement Conclusions –Stare DecisisStare Decisis –Quebec Acculturation
legal instruments Usages and Customs Usage is an old and vague Concept –Trade Usage versus Customs In France In USA (1-303 UCC)1-303 UCC –Is a Usage a Norm (per se) or a Implicit Contract extension (Contractual Approach)
legal instruments Usages and Customs Its rebirth because others norms are unsufficient Laws (EX: Utah) Regulations Treaties Jurisprudence Intrinsic reasons of its rebirth Formal Reasons –Flexibility –Vague Subtantial Reasons –Technical (EX: T.J. Hooper) (1932)T.J. Hooper –Commercial (lex mercatoria) –International (EX: consumer protection) –New and variable
legal instruments Usages and Customs CCQ. recognition –« 1434 CCQ. : A contract validly formed binds the parties who have entered into it not only as to what they have expressed in it but also as to what is incident to it according to its nature and in conformity with usage, equity or law. » But limited recognition –Rare Jurisprudence –« To vague to be Honest » –Outside the Law?
legal instruments Usages and Customs Example of Recognition Criteria: Caisse Populaire Desjardins St.-Cœur de Marie c. Foresterie Bertrand Lapointe, (1994) J.E (S.C.) –Generality –Publicity –Firm –Old –Uniform –Frequent
legal instruments Usages and Customs Few jurisprudence about usage definition – Ontario Inc. et al. v. NEXX Online, Inc. (1999), 45 O.R. (3d) 40 (netiquette) (contractual vision) Ontario Inc. et al. v. NEXX Online –Arbitral Sentence of Virtual Magistrate (1996) (normative vision)
legal history Common law 1066 and Hastings battle Law and Procedure King Bench (until 14th century) Cours des plaids communs (civil) Magna Carta (1215) –Recognize Cour des plaids communs competence –Recognize substantial principles –Recognize Cour des plaids communs appeal before the king
legal history Droit civil Complexe et few structure –L ancien droit (… at 1789) »Writing law in the south »Oral law in the North (EX.: Coutume de Paris) »Three main sources 1.Royal ordonnances 2.Religious Court 3.Doctrine (Domat, Pothier)) –Revolutionnary Law ( ) »5 Constitutions »Few constancy
legal history Droit civil 1804 Civil Code Codification versus consolidation Suppose to contain everything – Suppose to be comprehensive
legal history Droit civil in Quebec Influence on Code civil du Bas Canada (1867) Less Influence on 1994 CCQ –More practical as the french model Concept are more practical Writing is more practical –Common Law influence EX: evidence (2811 and f.) Succession
legal history Droit civil versus common law Not the same techniques of writing –EX: 1457 CCQ (very différent from common law) –EX: 2837 CCQ (substantial difference too) Judge interpretation is not the same
legal history Common law versus droit civil
Is IT Law different from more traditional areas? Evolution or Revolution Authors perpectives My point of view
Is IT Law different from more traditional areas? Factual Perspective Historical perspective –Michel Serres –2 different generation Technological perspective Legal resistances to change
Is IT Law different from more traditional areas? Factual Perspective
Is IT Law different from more traditional areas? Historical Perspective
Is IT Law different from more traditional areas? Historical Perspective Les nouvelles technologies : révolution culturelle et cognitive (New Technologies: Cultural and Knowledge Revolution)
Is IT Law different from more traditional areas? Miche Serres « dès le moment où change le couplage support - message, cest-à-dire le moment de linvention de lécriture, alors dans nos civilisations, tout change ! »
Is IT Law different from more traditional areas? Michel Serres « un professeur de science quelle que soit cette science dans une université enseigne aujourdhui 60 à 70% de contenu scientifique quil na pas lui même appris sur les bancs de cette université ».
Is IT Law different from more traditional areas? Technological Perspective –Hyperlink first generation –Web 2.0second generation
Is IT Law different from more traditional areas? Technological Perspective
Is IT Law different from more traditional areas? Legal Resistances to change –Resistance is inherent to Law –Ciceron –EX: Dell Case
Is IT Law different from more traditional areas?
Is IT Law different from more traditional areas? romantic classical
Is IT Law different from more traditional areas? Lawrence Lessig 4 ways to control cyberspace Law Social Norms Market Architecture or Code All of them may apply together IT Law is different from other Lawsdifferent
Is IT Law different from more traditional areas? John Barlow Libertarian Vision –No more Frontier –No more States –No more Law (EX: Copyright) (EX: A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace)A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace Wrong but … –Difficulties inherent to Internet –Even more true with Web 2.0
Is IT Law different from more traditional areas? Justice Easterbrook No change Reference to the « Law of the Horse »
Is IT Law different from more traditional areas? Revolution = IT Law is Different –New Laws –Laws are oftenly based on Process Evolution = Techniques of Law –Old tools Fiction Presumption –Old concept to reconsider EX: Trade Usage EX: Contract Law Law is very present in Cyberspace because –Potential is Huge –Lot of Money and Commerce is searching stability